|PM/PD Entrance exam: Zoology|
Histology: Microscopic structure of animal tissues, Histology of mammalian organs (stomach. intestine. liver, spleen. lungs, kidney . pancreas and gonads).
Anatomy and Physiology: (with reference to frog).
- Skin: Microscopic structure and its functions.
- Skeleton: Microscopic structure of bone and cartilage. General account of bones of frog.
- Digestive System: Structure of alimentary canal and associated glands. digestive enzymes and their role in digestion, absorption of products of digestion. peristalsis. balanced diet.
- Respiratory System: Structure of respiratory organs, mechanism of breathing, gaseous transport. tissue respiration.
- Circulatory System: Functions of blood and 1ymph. Microscopic structure of blood and blood vessels. Structures and working of heart, distribution of arteries and veins, circulation of blood coagulation. blood groups.
- Excretory System: Histology of kidney .structure and function of kidney tubules. arrangement of excretory organs.
- Nervous System :General account of brain, spinal cord and nerves. Histology of spinal cord. Reflex actions (simple and conditioned), Sense organs (eye and ear).
General arrangement of reproductive organs, histology of testis and ovary.
Basic features of development in animals. Types of eggs. fertilisation cleavage. blastula. Development of frog, up to the formation of primary germ layers, tadpole and its adaptation. metamorphosis of tadpole.
Diversity of Animal Life:
Principles of Classification, binomial nomenclature. General classification of animal Phyla up to classes (invertebrates) and up to sub-classes/order (vertebrates), with detailed study of the types as indicated:
- Protozoa. Amoeba. Entamoeba, Paramecium. Malaria, Parasitic trypanosomes.
- Coelenterata. Hydra.
- Platyhelminthes, Taenia solium, T. saginata.
- Nemathelminthes, Ascaris lumbricoides
- Annelida Pheretima posthuma (General account and life history).
- Arthropoda. Cockroach. Insects and diseases. Life histories of housefly and mosquitoes.
- Chordata. General .characters of fishes. General study of frog (Rana tigrina), General characters of birds.
Genetics and Evolution (Fundamentals only):
Human genetics -Human chromosomes. sex-determination. sex-linked inheritance. Evidences and theories of organic evolution.
Physical and biological factors influencing organism Food chains. pyramids of numbers, biological equilibrium. Interspecific associations (symbiosis) .