|PM/PD Entrance exam: Botany|
Anatomy and Physiology of Plants: Meristems -Plant growth and development. Internal and external regulators of growth and development in plants: Internal structure of stem and secondary growth; Xylem and Phloem-their cell elements and functions: Internal structure of dicot and monocot leaves; photosynthesis. history .importance. factors and mechanism, stomatal mechanism. transpiration and respiration. Internal structure of dicot and monocot roots. Absorption and cellwater relations, transport of water and minerals. tropic and turgor movements.
Principles of classical and new systematics. Binomial nomenclature. Familiarity with taxa.
Difference between artificial and natural systems. identification of local flora (upto familites) .
Man and Environment:
Soil, rainfall and temperature with reference to natural resources. Our natural resources -their uses and abuses. Environmental pollution and preventive measures.
- Cell theory: Cell as a unit of life. Tools and techniques of cell studies. Microscopy (use of microscope and calibration). Elements of microscope. Biomembranes -Transport mechanism, cellular respiration.
- Cell organelles: their structure and functions. Hormones -their mode of action, Nucleus. chromosomes, DNA structure including events in replication and transcription.
- Discovery of the nucleus -its structure and importance in heredity.
- Discovery of chromosomes -their structure and role in heredity. Parallelism of behaviour between Mendelian factors, chromosome theory of heredity .
- Discovery and structure of DNA. its role in heredity .Replication of DNA, Genetic Code and protein synthesis. Transcription.
Organisation of the heredity material in chromosomes. Equational division, Reduction division, Mitosis and Meiosis compared and contrasted significance of meiosis. Medel's laws of inheritance: Discovery of linkage, sex-linked inheritance. Crossing-over, stage at which crossing-over occurs: Neurospora genetics, Mutation, discovery, types of Mutation and Mutations in diploids. Role of mutations in evolution, Role in agriculture. Elaboration of Mendel's laws of inheritance: Monohybrid or Dyhybrid crosses. Reasons for the success of Mendel in his experiments Absence of linkage in Menders experiments. Mendelism as the basis of genetics.
Significance of life-cycles with special reference to alternation of generations as exemplified in Escherichia .coli, chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Funaria, Selaginellaand Pinus (No structural details).
Botany and Human Welfare:
Man and domestication of plants, important cultivated crop: cereals (wheat & rice), millets, pulses (gram), fibres, oilseeds (groundnut), sugarcane, vegetables, fruits (mango and banana).