MHT-CET : Physics Entrance Exam

MHT - CET : Physics - Thermodynamics Glossary

·         System: The region or space which we isolate in our imagination from all other parts
of space and on which we focus our attention.

·         Environment: Everything outside the system is called the surrounding or the environment.

·         The First Law of Thermodynamics: If an amount of heat dQ flows into a system, then a part of it appears as increase in the internal energy dU of the system and/or the remaining appears as the work done by the system on its surroundings.
\ dQ = dU + dW

·         Internal Energy (U): The total energy content of a system. It is the sum of energy possessed by a system due to molecular motion and molecular configuration.

·         Adiabatic Process: A process in which no heat is transferred to or from a system, i.e., dW= 0. (Total energy of the system remains constant.)

·         Isothermal Process: A process in which the temperature of a system remains constant. In this process dU = 0.

·         Isobaric Process: A process in which pressure remains constant.

·         Isochoric Process: A process in which volume remains constant, dW = 0.

·         Cyclic Process: A process in which the system returns to its original state after passing through different states.

·         Isotherm/Isothermal: A curve which represents graphically the relation between pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperature.

·         Phase Diagram: A diagram of pressure against temperature of a substance is called the phase diagram.

·         Ice Line: A curve in the phase diagram which joins all the points showing the pressure and temperature at which ice and water can exist in equilibrium with each other.

·         Steam Line: A curve in the phase diagram which joins all the points showing the pressure and temperature at which water and vapour can coexist in equilibrium with each other.

·         Triple Point of Water: The point in the phase diagram at which ice, water and steam can exist in critical equilibrium.

·         van der Wall's Equation of State:

 (V - b) = RT

·
where
p = pressure and V = volume of one mole of a real gas, a, b = constants whose value depends on the nature of the gas.
R = universal gas constant.

·         Joule's Law: Whenever work is converted into heat, the radio of work done to heat produced is always a constant.

 = J or W = JH

·
Where J = mechanical equivalent of heat.

·         Adiabatic Wall: A boundary separating a system from its surrounding that is perfectly conducting.

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