MHT-CET : Physics Entrance Exam

MHT - CET : Physics - Elasticity Glossary

 ·                     Deformation: If an applied force causes a change in the distance between the particles of a material body, it results in a change in size or shape or both. Such a change in size or shape is called deformation. ·                     Deforming Force: A force causing the deformation of a material body is called a deforming force. ·                     Elasticity: The property possessed by a material body due to which it offers a resistance to the deforming forces and recovers its original size and shape after the deforming forces are removed is called elasticity. ·                     Perfectly Elastic Body: A material body, which completely recovers its original size and shape upon removal of deforming forces, is called a perfectly elastic body. Example: Quartz fibre (almost perfectly elastic). ·                     Plasticity: The property possessed by a material body due to which it offers no resistance to the deforming forces and remains in the deformed state even after removal of the deforming forces is called plasticity. ·                     Perfectly Plastic Body: A material body that does not recover its original shape or size at all even after removal of the deforming forces is called a perfectly plastic body. Example: Clay. ·                     Internal Restoring Force: When deforming forces are applied to an elastic body, internal opposing forces are set up which tend to restore the body to its original size and shape. These forces are called internal restoring forces. Generally, Internal restoring force = Applied force. ·                     Stress: The internal restoring force per unit area of the body is called stress. ·                     Longitudinal Stress or Tensile Stress: If the applied force causes a change in the length of a body, then the corresponding stress is called longitudinal or tensile stress. ·                     Volume Stress or Bulk Stress: If the applied force causes a change in the volume of a body, then the corresponding stress is called volume stress or bulk stress. ·                     Shearing Stress: If the applied force produces a change in the shape of the body, then the corresponding stress is called shearing stress. ·                     Strain: The ratio of the change in dimensions (i.e. length, volume, etc.) of the body to the original dimensions (length, volume) is called the strain. ·                     Longitudinal or Tensile Strain: It is defined as the ratio of the change in length to the original length. ·                     Volume Strain or Bulk Strain: It is defined as the ratio of the change in volume to the original volume. ·                     Shearing Strain or Shear: When a tangential force is applied to a body, there is a lateral displacement of the different layers of the body. The displacement between any two parallel layers, separated by a unit distance in a direction at right angles to the direction of displacement is called shear strain. ·                     Elastic Limit: The maximum value of stress up to which the body shows elastic behaviour is called the elastic limit. ·                     Hooke's Law of Elasticity: Within the elastic limit, the stress developed in a body is directly proportional to the strain produced in it. ·                     Modulus of Elasticity: The modulus of elasticity is defined as the ratio of the stress to the corresponding strain within the elastic limit. ·                     Young's Modulus (Y): It is defined as the ratio of longitudinal stress to longitudinal strain within elastic limit. ·                     Bulk Modulus (K): It is defined as the ratio of the volume stress to the volume strain within elastic limit. Reciprocal of Bulk modulus is called compressibility. ·                     Shear Modulus or Modulus of Rigidity (h): It is defined as the ratio of the shearing stress to the shearing strain within elastic limit. ·                     Lateral Strain: The change in the dimension per unit original dimension perpendicular to the direction of the deforming force is called the lateral strain. ·                     Poisson's Ratio (s): Poisson's ratio is defined as the ratio of the lateral strain to the corresponding longitudinal strain. ·                     Yield Point: The point on the stress-strain curve, beyond which the strain increases without any increase in the stress and at which the wire begins to extend of its own accord is called the yield point. ·                     Breaking Stress (or Ultimate Strength): The maximum stress, which can be applied to a wire, is called the breaking stress. ·                     Breaking Point: The point on the stress-strain curve at which the wire breaks is called the breaking point. ·                     Strain Energy: The work done by the applied force in deforming the body is stored in it in the form of potential energy. This energy is called the strain energy.

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