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MHT-CET : Chemistry Entrance Exam

MHT - CET : Chemistry - Organic Hydroxy Compounds Know More

  • Reaction of an Alcohol with Conc. HCl: Lucas Test
    The mixture of conc. HCl and anhydrous ZnCl2 is called Lucas reagent.
    When a tertiary alcohol is treated with Lucas reagent, it instantly produces turbidity, whereas a secondary alcohol shows turbidity after 5-10 minutes. At room temperature, primary alcohol does not produce turbidity.
  • Oxidation of Alcohols
    When primary alcohols and secondary alcohols are oxidised with acidified with K2Cr2O7 solution, the colour of the dichromate solution changes from orange to green. With tertiary alcohols, there is no change in colour.
  • Saytzeff's Rule
    When water is eliminated from secondary or tertiary alcohol, the alkene formed as the major product is the one where the H atom is eliminated from the carbon containing smallest number of H atoms.
  • Uses of Alcohols
    Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is used in alcoholic drinks. A mixture of ethane-1, 2-diol, i.e. glycol (CH2OH - CH2OH), and water is used in car and lorry radiators. This mixture is commonly known as antifreeze. Propane-1, 2, 3-triol, i.e. glycerol (CH2OH - CHOH - CH2OH) is used in medicines and cosmetics. A small amount of alcohol is added to petrol instead of tetraethyl-lead (IV). This helps in the smooth burning of petrol.
  • Phenol
    Phenol is an antiseptic. It should be handled carefully as the crystals or solution of phenol in water can cause irritation of the skin and may cause blisters.
  • Bakelite (Phenol-formaldehyde Resin)
    Bakelite is a hard but brittle material. It is used in electrical fittings such as plugs and sockets. It is derived from the reaction between phenol with formaldehyde, catalysed by an acid or alkali.

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