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MHT-CET : Chemistry Entrance Exam

MHT - CET : Chemistry - Aldehydes and Ketones Know More


  • Methanol (Formaldehyde): Formaldehyde is completely miscible in water. The aqueous solution of formaldehyde is commercially sold as formalin. Formalin has a characteristic smell. It is used as a disinfectant and as a preservative to preserve biological samples.
  • Ethanal (Acetaldehyde): Acetaldehyde is commercially prepared by using Wacker process.

    H2C = CH2 + PdCl2 + H2O CH3CHO + Pd + 2HCl

    It is used in the manufacture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride.
  • Uses of Other Aldehydes: As aldehydes are often sweet smelling, volatile liquids; they are generally used in perfumes and as flavouring agents. For example, 3-phenyl-2-propenal (cinnamaldehyde) is used as cinnamon flavour. 3- Methaoxy-4- hydroxy benzaldehyde (vanillin) is used as vanilla flavour.
  • Propanone (Acetone): Acetone is used as a solvent. For example, during the manufacture of artifical fibres (like NYLON), the cellulose acetate is dissolved in acetone.
  • Uses of Other Ketones: Like aldehydes, ketones are also sweet smelling liquids. Hence, they are also used as flavouring agents. For example, Carvone has a spearmint flavour and Menthone has peppermint flavour.
  • Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones by Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Alcohols: Aldehydes are obtained by heating primary alcohols with Cu/Fe metal at 575 K.

R - CH2OH

RCHO + H2

  • Ketones are obtained by heating secondary alcohols with Cu metal at 575 K.

  • Isomerism: Aldehydes exhibit tautomerism optical and chain isomerism. They are functional isomers of ketones. Ketones exhibit tautomerism, chain, position and optical isomerism. They are functional isomers of aldehydes.
  • Tautomerism: The tautomers are two structural isomers which can be mutually interconverted by migration of a proton. Example: acetone.

  • Fehling's Solution: It is a blue coloured alkaline solution of cupric ion and Rochelle salt (Sodium Potassium tartarate).

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