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MHT-CET : Chemistry Entrance Exam

MHT - CET : Chemistry - Nuclear and Radiochemistry Glossary

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                     Atomic Number (Z): The number of protons present in the nucleus of an atom of an element is called the atomic number.
Atomic number (Z) = Number of protons = Number of electrons

                     Atomic Mass Number (A): The total number of protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom of an element is called the atomic mass number.
Atomic mass number (A) = Atomic number (Z) + Neutron number (N)

                     Neutron Number (N): The number of neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom of an isotope of an element is called the neutron number.
N = A - Z

                     Isotopes:The atoms of the same element, which differ in the number of neutrons present in the nuclei of their atoms are called isotopes.
The atoms of the same element having the same atomic number, but different atomic mass number are called isotopes.

                     Isobars: The atoms of different elements, which have the same atomic mass number, but different atomic numbers, are called isobars.

                     Nuclear Forces: The strong attractive forces which exists between the protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom are called nuclear forces.

                     Mass Defect Dm: The difference between the total mass of the nucleons (protons and neutrons) present in the nucleus of an atom and the actual mass of the nucleus is called the mass defect of the nucleus.

                     Binding Energy (B.E.): The amount of energy required to break the nucleus of an atom into its constituent nucleons is called binding energy of the nucleus.

                     Radioactivity: The phenomenon of spontaneous disintegration of an unstable nuclei of certain heavy elements with the emission of some radioactive radiation is called radioactivity.

                     Disintegration Law:The number of atoms disintegrated per unit time is a constant fraction of the total number of the atoms present at that instant.

                     Decay or Disintegration Constant (l):The fraction of the total number of atoms (nuclei) undergoing radioactive disintegration per unit time is called decay or disintegration constant of the element.

                     Half-life Period (t1/2): The time required for the disintegration of a radioactive element to reduce to half of the original amount is called half-life period.

                     Artificial Transmutation: The process of conversion of a stable isotope of one element into a stable isotope of another element by bombarding it with suitable high energy (nuclear) particles is called artificial transmutation.

                     Target:The atomic nucleus that is bombarded by high energy nuclear particles (projectiles) is called a target.

The high energy nuclear particle such as
a-particle, proton or neutron, which is used to bombard an isotope of an element, is called a projectile.

                     Product or Recoil Nucleus: The new atom produced from the target nucleus after it is bombarded with projectiles and which has mass number not very different from that of the target is known as product or recoil nucleus.

                     Emissions: The particles which are ejected from a target nucleus after bombardment with projectiles are called emissions.

                     Natural Radioactivity: The spontaneous emission of radiation from the nuclei of a heavy element is called natural radioactivity.

                     Artificial Radioactivity: The phenomenon of conversion of a stable nucleus (non-radioactive) into an unstable radioactive nucleus by artificial disintegration is called artificial radioactivity.

                     Nuclear Fission: The process of splitting of a heavy nucleus into two or more nuclei of lighter atoms is called nuclear fission.

                     Nuclear Fusion: The process in which two light nuclei combine to form heavier, stable nuclei, with the liberation of a large amount of energy.

                     Radioisotopes:The naturally unstable elements, which spontaneously emit radiations like a-particles, protons, neutrons, g-rays, etc. are called as radioisotopes.

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