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MHT-CET : Chemistry Entrance Exam

MHT - CET : Chemistry - Ionic Equilibria Glossary

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  • Arrhenius Theory of Ionisation
    An acid is the substance which when dissolved in water gives H+ ions and a base is the one which gives OH
    - ions.
    Example:

Acid

HCl H+ + Cl-

 

H2SO4 H+ + HSO4-

Base

NaOH Na+ + OH-

 

Ca(OH)2 Ca2+ + 2OH-

  •  
  • Lowry and Bronsted Concept
    This theory says that an acid is a substance which can donate a proton (H+) and a base is a substance which can accept a proton.
    Example:

Acid

HCl, H2SO4, CH3COOH

Base

NH3, H2O, OH-

  • Conjugate Acids and Bases
    The pair of an acid and a base which differ only by a proton (gaining or losing) is called a conjugate pair.
    Example:

HCl(acid) - Cl-(base)

H2O(acid) - OH-(base)

  •  
  • Amphoteric Nature of Water
    Water can act as an acid as well as a base depending upon the nature of the substance dissolved in it.
    Example:

HCl +

H2O

H3O + Cl-

 

Base

 

H2O +

NH3

NH4+ + OH-





  • Acid Lewis Theory of Acids and Bases
    According to this theory, an acid is a substance - molecule or ion - which can accept an electron pair while a base donates an electron pair.
    Example:

Acid:

H+, AlCl3, BF3

Base:

Cl-, H2O, OH-, NH3

  •  
  • Ostwald's Dilution Law
    It states that for weak electrolytes, the degree of dissociation is inversely proportional to the square root of the concentration or directly proportional to the square root of dilution.
    a = or a =
  • Ionic Product of Water
    It is the product of the ionic concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in water. At 25C it is equal to 1 10
    -14.
  • pH and pOH
    pH =
    - log10 [H+]
    pOH =
    - log10 [OH-]
    pH + pOH = 14 at 298 K
  • Common Ion Effect
    The suppression of the ionisation of the weak electrolyte by the addition of a strong electrolyte having a common ion is called common ion effect.
  • Buffer Solutions
    The solution which resists the change in pH on dilution or on adding a small quantity of an acid or base is called a buffer solution.
    Example:
    Acidic Buffer: Citric Acid + Sodium Citrate
    Basic Buffer: Ammonium hydroxide + Ammonium phosphate
  • Solubility Product (Ksp)
    It is defined as the product of the ionic concentrations of the ions of a sparingly soluble electrolyte present in its saturated solution at the given temperature.
    For salt MqAr
    MqAr qMr+ + rAq
    -
    Ksp = [Mr+]q [Aq
    -]r
  • Hydrolysis
    It is the interaction between the anion or cation of a salt with water to produce acidity or alkalinity. It is the reverse of neutralisation.
  • Degree of Hydrolysis (h)
    The fraction of the total amount of dissolved salt, which has undergone hydrolysis at equilibrium is called the degree of hydrolysis.
  • Hydrolysis Constant (Kh)
    The equilibrium constant of the hydrolysis equilibrium of a salt is called hydrolysis constant.

    h = h = .
    where h = degree of hydrolysis of the salt
    Kh = hydrolysis constant of the salt
    V = volume of solution in dm3 containing 1 mol of salt
    C = concentration of the solution in mol dm
    -3 or molarity (m).

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