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MHT-CET : Chemistry Entrance Exam

MHT - CET : Chemistry - Halogen Derivatives of Alkanes Glossary

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  • Halogen Derivatives of Alkanes
    The compounds formed by the replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms of alkanes by halogen atoms are called halogen derivatives of alkanes.
  • Monohalogen Derivatives (Alkyl halides)
    They contain only one halogen atom per alkane molecule.
  • Primary Alkyl Halide
    In this compound, the carbon atom bearing the halogen atom is attached to not more than one other carbon atom or alkyl group.
  • Secondary Alkyl Halide
    In this compound, the carbon atom bearing the halogen atom is attached to two other carbon atoms or alkyl groups.
  • Tertiary Alkyl Halide
    In this compound, the carbon atom bearing the halogen atom is attached to three other carbon atoms or alkyl groups.
  • Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction
    The reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms in the reactant is replaced by an attacking nucleophile is called a nucleophilic substitution reaction.
  • Ammonolysis
    The reaction of excess of ammonia with an alkyl halide to give an alkyl amine is known as ammonolysis.
  • Wurtz Reaction
    When an alkyl halide is treated with metallic sodium in dry ether, a corresponding higher alkane is formed.
  • Grignard Reagents
    They are alkylmagnesium halides. They are represented as R - Mg - X, where R = alkyl group and X = Br or I.
  • Dehydrohalogenation Reaction
    When an alkyl halide is heated with alcoholic KOH, halogen atom and one hydrogen atom from the adjacent carbon atom are eliminated as hydrogen halide and an unsaturated hydrocarbon (alkane) is formed.
  • Fission of a Chemical Bond
    The breaking of a chemical bond into two species is called fission of a chemical bond.
  • Homolytic Fission (Homolysis)
    The symmetrical breaking of a covalent bond in such a way that each partner atom acquires one electron each from the bonding pair is called a homolytic fission.
  • Heterolytic Fission (Heterolysis)
    The asymmetrical breaking of a covalent bond in such a way that one of the partner atoms retain the complete bonding pair of electrons is called a heterolytic fission.
  • Carbonium Ion (Carbocation)
    The organic species in which the carbon atom carries a positive charge is known as carbonium ion or carbocation.
  • Carbanion
    The organic species in which the carbon atom carries a negative charge is known as carbanion.
  • Electrophile
    The electron deficient species that attacks an electron rich centre of a substrate is called an electrophile.
  • Nucleophile
    The electron rich species that attacks an electron-deficient centre of a substrate is called a nucleophile.
  • Inductive Effect
    The permanent polarisation of a single (
    s) covalent bond due to the electronegativity difference between the atoms joined by it is called inductive effect.
  • Electromeric Effect
    The temporary shift of the
    p-bond electrons in a double bond to one of the atoms joined by it in the presence of a suitable reagent is called electromeric effect.
  • Transition State
    The imaginary, high energy, unstable and transitory complex formed by the combination of the reactants is called transition state.
  • Intermediate
    It is the species formed during the course of a reaction. It has a definite life-time and can be isolated. It has lower energy compared to that of the preceding transition state but higher than the reactants or products.
  • Energy of Activation
    The difference between the energy of the reactants and the energy of the transition state is called the energy of activation.
  • Heat of Reaction
    It is the amount of heat liberated when one mole of a product is formed under standard conditions.
  • Energy Profile Diagram
    It is the graph showing the progress of a reaction against the potential energy changes.
  • Monochromatic Light
    It is the light having only one wavelength.
  • Optically Active Compound
    It is a organic compound that rotates the plane of plane polarised light either to the left or right.
  • Configuration
    It is the permanent arrangement of the atoms in a molecule in space with respect to each other.
  • Plane Polarised Light
    A ray of monochromatic light which contains all the vibrations restricted to a single plane is called plane polarised light.
  • Optical Activity
    The property of a substance to rotate the plane of plane polarized light to left or right is called as optical activity.
  • Optical Isomers or Enantiomers or Optical Antipodes
    Two compounds that have the same structural formula but each has a structure which is a non-superimposable mirror image of the other are called optical isomers. One isomer rotates the plane of plane-polarised light to left (l-isomer), while the other to the right (d-isomer).
  • d-Isomer or Dextrorotatory Compound
    The optical isomer which rotates the plane of plane-polarised light to the right hand side (clockwise rotation or dextrorotation) is called a d-isomer.
  • l-Isomer or Laevorotatory Compound
    The optical isomer which rotates the plane of plane-polarised light to the left hand side (anticlockwise rotation or laevorotation) is called a l-isomer.
  • Racemic Mixture (dl)
    The equimolar mixture of the dextro isomer and laevo isomer of a compound, which is optically inactive due to external compensation is called a racemic mixture.
    Separation of enantiomers is called resolution.
  • Asymmetric or Chiral Carbon Atom
    The carbon atom which is attached to four different substituents is called an asymmetric carbon atom.
  • Dihalogen Derivative of Alkane
    They contain two halogen atoms per alkane molecule.
  • Geminal Dihalide
    It is a compound in which two halogen atoms are attached to the same carbon atom.
  • Vicinal Dihalide
    It is a compound in which two halogen atoms are attached to two adjacent carbon atoms.

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