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MHT-CET : Chemistry Entrance Exam

MHT - CET : Chemistry - Carbohydrates Proteins and Fats Glossary

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                     Carbohydrates: The naturally occurring polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones or substances which yield such compounds on hydrolysis are called carbohydrates. They are of two types, sugars and non-sugars.

                     Sugars: These are soluble in water, sweet in taste and crystalline in nature. Example: Glucose, cane sugar.

                     Non-sugars or Polysaccharides: These are insoluble in water, tasteless and amorphous in nature. Example: Starch, cellulose.

                     Monosaccharides: The smallest basic units of carbohydrates which cannot be hydrolysed further are called monosaccharides. Example: Glucose, fructose.

                     Oligosaccharides: The carbohydrates which on hydrolysis give definite number (2 to 10) of monosaccharides or simple sugar units of the carbohydrate, per molecule are oligosaccharides. Example: Sucrose, maltose.

                     Proteins: The naturally occurring nitrogen, containing polymeric compounds of very high molecular weight, containing recurring -CONH- group are called proteins.

                     Simple Proteins: The proteins which on hydrolysis give only a-amino acids are called simple proteins. Example: Egg, albumin, globulin.

                     Conjugated Proteins: The proteins which on hydrolysis gives a-amino acids and some non-protein compounds are called conjugated proteins. Example: Haemoglobin, casein of milk.

                     Derived Proteins: The proteins which are formed by the treatment of some chemicals or heat on natural proteins are called derived proteins. Example: Polypeptides.

                     Peptide Linkage: The recurring (-CONH-) linkage in protein is known as peptide linkage.

                     Biuret Test: This test is for the proteins containing peptide linkage in their molecule. A drop of aq. CuSO4 solution is added to the hydrolysed protein solution when a reddish violet colour develops.

                     Millon's Test: This test is for those proteins which contain phenolic -OH group. When a protein solution is warmed with Millon's reagent (mercurous nitrate + mercuric nitrate in dil. HNO3) a white precipitate is formed which turns red on heating.

                     Fats and Oils: They are the esters of trihydroxy alcohol, glycerol and long chain carboxylic acid.

                     Saponification: The alkaline hydrolysis of an oil or a fat resulting in the formation of glycerol and soap is called saponification.

                     Hydrogenation: The reaction of hydrogen gas with an oil in the presence of a catalyst, like nickel, to give a saturated solid fat is called hydrogenation.

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