Carbonyl Compounds: The organic compounds containing
carbonyl (oxo) group, =
O group as their functional group are called carbonyl compounds. General
Aldehydes: The organic
compounds containing a formyl group ( group)
are called aldehydes.
Ketones: The organic
compounds containing a carbonyl group (
= O group) attached to two hydrocarbon radicals (alkyl or aryl groups) are
Simple or Symmetrical Ketone: The ketone in which the carbonyl group is attached to two
identical groups is called a simple or symmetrical ketone.
Mixed or Unsymmetrical Ketone: The ketone in which the carbonyl group is attached to two
different groups is called a mixed or unsymmetrical ketone.
Decarboxylation Reaction: The reaction of a
carboxylic acid in which the carboxyl group of the carboxylic acid is lost is
called decarboxylation reaction.
Condensation Reaction: The reaction in which two molecules
combine to form a new molecule with the elimination of a small molecule like
water molecule is called condensation reaction.
Self Redox Reaction: The reaction in
which one reactant is reduced while the other one is oxidised
is called self redox reaction.
Aldol Condensation: When an aldehyde or a ketone, containing
(active hydrogen), is warmed with a dilute alkali (base) or a dilute acid, b-hydroxyaldehyde
Cannizzarro Reaction: When an aldehyde, devoid of a-hydrogen atom, is warmed with a
concentrated alkali, (50% NaOH or KOH), equivalent
amounts of the corresponding alcohol and the acid are formed.
Fehling Solution: It is a mixture of
equal amounts of copper sulphate solution (Fehling solution A) and alkaline solution of tartaric
acid (Fehling solution B).