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Historically, acids are substances which are
Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases
Limitations of Arrhenius Theory
Conjugate Acid-base Pair
Pair of acid and base which differ only by a proton. Acid
donates proton to form a base, while base accepts the proton. Thus, an
acid loses a proton to form a conjugate base and a base accepts to form a
Cl- is a conjugate base of H-Cl
H3O+ is a conjugate acid of a base H2O.
Water is amphoteric according to Lowry and Bronsted theory. It functions
as acid as well as base depending upon the nature of substance dissolved
Lewis Acid-base Theory
Acid is a substance which can accept a lone pair of
Example H+, AlCl3, BF3.
BaseSubstance which can donate a lone pair of electrons.
Example Cl-, H2O, OH-.
Degree of Dissociation
The fraction of total number of molecules of an electrolyte,
which undergoes dissociation at equilibrium is
called degree of dissociation (a).