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MHT-CET : Chemistry Entrance Exam

MHT - CET : Chemistry - Carbohydrates Proteins and Fats Page 2

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3.

Fats

 

The triglycerides of long chain fatty acids with glycerol which are solid at room temperature are called fats.

 

 

4.

Oils

 

The triglycerides of long chain fatty acids with glycerol which are in the liquidstate at room temperature are called oils.

 

 

5.

Glycerides

 

The esters of fatty acids with glycerol are called glycerides.
General structural formula of triglyceride is

 

 

 

 

 

where R = alkyl group of fatty acids.

 

 

6.

Fatty Acid

 

The aliphatic carboxylic acids having more than four carbon atoms are called fatty acids. They are obtained by the hydrolysis of fats and oils.

 

 

 

 

 

Examples: Palmitic acid, 

CH3 (CH2)14 COOH

Stearic acid,

CH3 (CH2)16 COOH

 

 

7.

Classification of Fatty Acids

 

a)

Saturated Fatty Acids: They do not contain any double or triple bond.

Examples: Palmitic acid, 

CH3 (CH2)14 COOH

Stearic acid,

CH3 (CH2)16 COOH

 

 

b)

Unsaturated Fatty Acids: They contain one or more double or triple bonds.

 

Examples: Oleic acids, CH3 (CH2)7 CH = CH - (CH2)7 COOH

 

 

8.

Difference between Oils and Fats

 

Oils

Fats

Liquid at room temperature.

Solid at room temperature.

Contains large proportion of unsaturated fatty acids.

Contains large proportion of saturated fatty acids.

Generally obtained from vegetable sources.

Generally obtained from animal sources.

Can be hydrogenated.

Cannot be hydrogenated.

 

 

 

10.

Saponification

 

The alkaline hydrolysis of an oil or a fat resulting in the formation of soap and glycerol is called saponification.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sodium soaps are hard and are used as toilet soaps. Potassium soaps are soft and are used in shaving sticks, shampoo and shaving cream.

 

 

10.

Hydrogenation

 

The reaction of hydrogen gas with an oil in the presence of a catalyst, like nickel, to give a saturated solid fat is called hydrogenation.

It is also called as hardening of oil.

 

 

Example:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Uses: To prepare vegetable ghee or margarine (vanaspati).

 



 

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