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MHT-CET : Biology Entrance Exam

MHT - CET : Biology - Reproduction Know More

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Microgamete and Macrogamete

  • A sperm is also known as a microgamete as it is smaller in size.
  • On the other hand, ovum is known as a macrogamete since it is larger in size.
  • A sperm has a flagellum and is, therefore, motile.
  • An egg is non-motile.

Isogamy and Anisogamy

  • Isogamy is the fusion of two similar or identical gametes.
  • It occurs in unicellular organisms like Monocystis.
  • Anisogamy is the fusion of two dissimilar gametes.
  • It occurs in all higher organisms, including man.

Parthenogenesis

  • Parthenogenesis is a special type of sexual reproduction in which an ovum develops into a new organism without fertilisation by the sperm.
  • For example, drones in a colony of honeybees develop parthenogenetically from unfertilised ova.
  • Drones are, thus, haploid individuals.

Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis

  • Spermatogenesis is the process of formation of male gametes, i.e. sperms.
  • It begins at puberty and occurs in the seminiferous tubules in the testes of males.
  • It is a continuous process.
  • Oogenesis is the process of formation of ova or eggs.
  • It begins even before the girl child is born. In fact, a baby girl is born with a number of primary oocytes in prophase I stage.
  • After puberty, when the girl starts menstruating, only one egg matures in about 28-30 days.

Primary and Secondary Sex Organs

  • The primary sex organs are testes in males and ovaries in females.
  • These organs produce gametes, i.e. sperms in males and ova in females.
  • They also secrete sex hormones, i.e. testosterone in males and estrogen and progesterone in females.
  • Their development is under the control of FSH and LH.
  • The examples of secondary sex organs are prostate and seminal vesicles in males and uterus and vagina in females.
  • They neither secrete sex hormones nor produce gametes but play an important role in the functioning of the reproductive system of males and females.

Morula and Blastula

  • Morula is a spherical, solid ball of cells without a cavity.
  • It is formed as a result of first few cleavages.
  • Here, the mass of cells are undifferentiated.
  • Blastula is a hollow, fluid-filled embryo.
  • Differentiation of cells begin at the blastula stage.

Structures Formed from the Three Germ Layers

  • The three germ layers formed during gastrulation form specific organs. Some of them are given below:

1.      Ectoderm gives rise to brain, spinal cord and nerves.

2.      Mesoderm gives rise to heart, kidneys and gonads.

3.      Endoderm gives rise to liver, pancreas and urinary bladder.

  • The cell groups of these germ layers move in a perfect order with accuracy to form specific organs.

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