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MHT-CET : Biology Entrance Exam

MHT - CET : Biology - Human Diseases and their Control Know More

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Other Forms of Hepatitis

1.      Non-A Non-B type:

         It is caused by a DNA virus sometimes called as HCV.

         The main mode of transmission is through contaminated blood.

         The incubation period of the virus 4-5 weeks.

2.      Hepatitis D (Delta Hepatitis):

         It is caused by a RNA virus called as HDV.

         This delta virus does not cause infection by itself.

         It causes infection in combination with hepatitis B virus as delta virus can replicate only in the presence of B virus.

         When they are together, they form an acute form of hepatitis called Delta hepatitis.

         The mode of transmission of this virus is same as HBV.

Hepatitis B:

  • Hepatitis B virus is present in the blood of patients who have recovered from the disease.
  • These people are known as carriers.
  • The virus may be present in the body fluids of such patients such as sweat, saliva, milk, blood, etc.
  • Thus they transmit the disease even though they have recovered.

Initial Symptoms of Leprosy:

  • In the initial stages, pink or colourless patches appear on the skin.
  • There is partial or total loss of sensation at the affected parts.
  • Small nodules appear on the face and all over the skin.
  • The peripheral nerves get thickened.
  • The skin also becomes thick, especially the ear lobes.
  • There may be loss of eyelashes and eyebrows.

Advanced Stages of Leprosy Show the Following Symptoms:

  • The nodules rapture and bacilli are released through the wounds.
  • Deformities of toes and fingers occur.
  • Nasal depression may occur.
  • In some cases blindness and paralysis can also occur.

Characteristics of Cancer-producing Cells:

  • The cell that develops into cancer is called a stem cell.
  • It possesses active oncogenes.
  • Oncogenes are cancer-causing genes that are present in the human body cells but in an inactive form.
  • The stem cell undergoes uncontrolled cell divisions and produces a mass of cancerous cell called tumor.
  • Cancer cells are abnormal and lack biological inhibitions.
  • They do not undergo differentiation.
  • They exhibit the phenomenon of metastasis.

Preliminary Diagnostic Procedures for Cancer:

  • A bronchoscope is used for the detecting lung cancer.
  • It includes viewing of network of airways by the doctor through the instrument.
  • A mammogram can detect breast cancer at an early stage, i.e. before any lump can be felt.
  • A pap test is performed to detect cervical cancer.
  • A cervical smear is taken and examined in this test.
  • A prostate specific antigen test (PSA test) is done to detect prostate cancer in early stages.

Confirmatory Test for Cancer:

  • Biopsy is the confirmatory test (C.T.) for cancer.
  • In this test, a small piece of tissue is removed from the tumor.
  • This tissue may be frozen immediately and sliced into thin sections.
  • The pathologists examine this tissue under a microscope to determine whether the tumor is benign or cancerous (malignant).

Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS):

  • AIDS is caused by Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus (HIV).
  • AIDS is the most serious stage of HIV disease.
  • HIV virus attacks the immune system and makes the body susceptible to a number of life-threatening infections.

Transmission of Virus:

1.      Through sexual contact including oral, anal and vaginal sex.

2.      Through blood transfusion.

3.      From a pregnant women to her foetus.

4.      The infection is not transmitted by casual social contact with the infected person such as by shaking hands, hugging or touching, etc.

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