Other Forms of Hepatitis
Non-A Non-B type:
It is caused by a DNA virus sometimes called as HCV.
The main mode of transmission is through contaminated blood.
The incubation period of the virus 4-5 weeks.
Hepatitis D (Delta Hepatitis):
It is caused by a RNA virus called as HDV.
This delta virus does not cause infection by itself.
It causes infection in combination with hepatitis B virus as
delta virus can replicate only in the presence of B virus.
When they are together, they form an acute form of hepatitis
called Delta hepatitis.
The mode of transmission of this virus is same as HBV.
- Hepatitis B virus is present
in the blood of patients who have recovered from the disease.
- These people are known as
- The virus may be present in
the body fluids of such patients such as sweat, saliva, milk, blood,
- Thus they transmit the
disease even though they have recovered.
Initial Symptoms of Leprosy:
- In the initial stages, pink
or colourless patches appear on the skin.
- There is partial or total
loss of sensation at the affected parts.
- Small nodules appear on the
face and all over the skin.
- The peripheral nerves get
- The skin also becomes thick,
especially the ear lobes.
- There may be loss of
eyelashes and eyebrows.
Advanced Stages of Leprosy Show the Following Symptoms:
- The nodules rapture and
bacilli are released through the wounds.
- Deformities of toes and
- Nasal depression may occur.
- In some cases blindness and
paralysis can also occur.
Characteristics of Cancer-producing Cells:
- The cell that develops into
cancer is called a stem cell.
- It possesses active oncogenes.
- Oncogenes are cancer-causing genes
that are present in the human body cells but in an inactive form.
- The stem cell undergoes
uncontrolled cell divisions and produces a mass of cancerous cell called
- Cancer cells are abnormal
and lack biological inhibitions.
- They do not undergo
- They exhibit the phenomenon
Preliminary Diagnostic Procedures for Cancer:
- A bronchoscope is
used for the detecting lung cancer.
- It includes viewing of
network of airways by the doctor through the instrument.
- A mammogram can
detect breast cancer at an early stage, i.e. before any lump can be
- A pap test is
performed to detect cervical cancer.
- A cervical smear is taken
and examined in this test.
- A prostate specific antigen
test (PSA test) is done to detect prostate cancer in early stages.
Confirmatory Test for Cancer:
- Biopsy is the confirmatory
test (C.T.) for cancer.
- In this test, a small piece
of tissue is removed from the tumor.
- This tissue may be frozen
immediately and sliced into thin sections.
- The pathologists examine
this tissue under a microscope to determine whether the tumor is benign
or cancerous (malignant).
Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome
- AIDS is caused by Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus (HIV).
- AIDS is the most serious
stage of HIV disease.
- HIV virus attacks the immune
system and makes the body susceptible to a number of life-threatening
Transmission of Virus:
Through sexual contact including oral, anal and vaginal sex.
Through blood transfusion.
From a pregnant women to her foetus.
The infection is not transmitted by casual social contact with
the infected person such as by shaking hands, hugging or touching, etc.