Varieties of Fowl:
1. Indigenous or Desi Varieties: These include Aseel, Ghagus, Basra, Chittagong, etc.
- They are immune to many
diseases and hardy to temperature.
- They are also small in size
and poor egg layers.
2. Exotic or Improved Varieties:
- The American breeds include
Rhode Island Red, Plymouth Rock, New Hampshire and Wyandotte.
- The English breeds include
Cronish, Orpingtons, Dorking, Red Caps and Sussex.
- The Mediterranean class
includes Minorca, Ancona and White Leghorn.
Types of Breeding:
- Mating of closely related
fowl is called inbreeding. It should be avoided as this results in slow growth, low fertility, delayed
maturity and increased mortality rate in the offsprings.
- When two individuals of
different breeds are allowed to mate, the process is called cross-breeding.
Types of Mating:
- Pen-mating - It
involves only one male which is allowed to mate with 10-50 hens.
Pedigree records can be made in this case.
- Flock-mating - It
involves few males which are allowed to mate with the entire flock of
Importance of Cross-breeding in Poultry:
- It increases the
productivity of poultry.
- Cross-breeding should be
done between local breeds and best exotic breeds like Rhode Island Red,
White Leghorn, Plymouth Rock, etc.
- Cross-breeding can evolve
- These birds have faster
growth rate and low mortality rates.
- The Central Poultry Breeding
Farm situated in Bangalore has successfully evolved a
strain called HH 260, which is genetically superior.
- It is capable of laying 260
- It also has a low mortality
- The egg-laying capacity of
some other varieties of hen are given below:
1. Indian hen lays about 60 eggs per year.
2. White Leghorn lays about 180 eggs per year.
Types of Poultry Diseases:
Bacterial diseases include fowl cholera, pulloram white
diarrhoea, chronic respiratory disease, etc.
Viral diseases include ranikhet, viral arthritis, fowl pox,
gumboro disease, etc.
Fungal diseases includes aspergillosis or
Types of Fishery:
- Inland Fishery
The inland fish include Labeo rohita, Labeo calbasu, Labeo
fimbriatus, Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala, Wallago attu, Mystus seenghala, Notopterus
notopterus, Channa marulius, etc.
- Marine Fishery
The important marine fish include Mackeral, Oil sardine, Hilsa ilisha,
Rawas, Bombay duck, Pomfret, Tuna, Sole fish, Sharks and Rays.
- Mulberry silk is produced
from the larva of the moth Bombyx mori which belongs to the
- Types of Mulberry Silk:
Multivoltine - This silk is obtained many times in a
Univoltine - This silk is obtained once in a year.
Bivoltine - This silk is obtained twice in a year.
- Bombyx mori is a creamy white moth,
which is about 2.5 cm long.
- The length of a
newly-hatched caterpiller is about 1/8th of an inch.
- About 1 kg of silk is
obtained from 5,000 cocoons.
Other Types of Silk:
- Tassar silk is obtained from
- Muga silk is obtained from Antheraea
Diseases of Silk Moth:
- Fungal diseases include
Maggot disease, Flacherie and Green muscardine.
- Pebrine is a protozoan
is the Indian honeybee used in apicultural industry.
- Other honey-producing bees
are Rock bee (Apis dorsata) and Little
bee (Apis florea).
- Apis melifera is a European variety of
- Apis dorsata or Rock bee is a wild
variety of honeybee.
- It is larger in size. It
builds huge combs on rocks or trees. It cannot be domesticated.
- Apis florea is the smallest honeybee.
It generally builds combs in bushes.
- Apis mellifera is large in size. It is
also used in commercial apiculture.
- The enemies of honeybees
include spiders, lizards, ants, bears, monkeys, wasps, wax moths, etc.