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MHT-CET : Biology Entrance Exam

MHT - CET : Biology - Domestication of Animals Know More

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Poultry

Varieties of Fowl:

1. Indigenous or Desi Varieties: These include Aseel, Ghagus,
Basra, Chittagong, etc.

  • They are immune to many diseases and hardy to temperature.
  • They are also small in size and poor egg layers.

2. Exotic or Improved Varieties:

  • The American breeds include Rhode Island Red, Plymouth Rock, New Hampshire and Wyandotte.
  • The English breeds include Cronish, Orpingtons, Dorking, Red Caps and Sussex.
  • The Mediterranean class includes Minorca, Ancona and White Leghorn.

Types of Breeding:

  • Mating of closely related fowl is called inbreeding. It should be avoided as this results in slow growth, low fertility, delayed maturity and increased mortality rate in the offsprings.
  • When two individuals of different breeds are allowed to mate, the process is called cross-breeding.

Types of Mating:

  • Pen-mating - It involves only one male which is allowed to mate with 10-50 hens. Pedigree records can be made in this case.
  • Flock-mating - It involves few males which are allowed to mate with the entire flock of hens.

Importance of Cross-breeding in Poultry:

  • It increases the productivity of poultry.
  • Cross-breeding should be done between local breeds and best exotic breeds like Rhode Island Red, White Leghorn, Plymouth Rock, etc.
  • Cross-breeding can evolve disease-resistant birds.
  • These birds have faster growth rate and low mortality rates.
  • The Central Poultry Breeding Farm situated in Bangalore has successfully evolved a strain called HH 260, which is genetically superior.
  • It is capable of laying 260 eggs annually.
  • It also has a low mortality rate.
  • The egg-laying capacity of some other varieties of hen are given below:
    1. Indian hen lays about 60 eggs per year.
    2. White Leghorn lays about 180 eggs per year.

Types of Poultry Diseases:

1.      Bacterial diseases include fowl cholera, pulloram white diarrhoea, chronic respiratory disease, etc.

2.      Viral diseases include ranikhet, viral arthritis, fowl pox, gumboro disease, etc.

3.      Fungal diseases includes aspergillosis or brooder pneumonia.

Types of Fishery:

  • Inland Fishery
    The inland fish include Labeo rohita, Labeo calbasu, Labeo fimbriatus, Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala, Wallago attu, Mystus seenghala, Notopterus notopterus, Channa marulius, etc.
  • Marine Fishery
    The important marine fish include Mackeral, Oil sardine, Hilsa ilisha, Rawas, Bombay duck, Pomfret, Tuna, Sole fish, Sharks and Rays.

Sericulture

  • Mulberry silk is produced from the larva of the moth Bombyx mori which belongs to the family Bombycidae.
  • Types of Mulberry Silk:

1.      Multivoltine - This silk is obtained many times in a year.

2.      Univoltine - This silk is obtained once in a year.

3.      Bivoltine - This silk is obtained twice in a year.

  • Bombyx mori is a creamy white moth, which is about 2.5 cm long.
  • The length of a newly-hatched caterpiller is about 1/8th of an inch.
  • About 1 kg of silk is obtained from 5,000 cocoons.

Other Types of Silk:

  • Tassar silk is obtained from Antheraea mylitta.
  • Muga silk is obtained from Antheraea assama.

Diseases of Silk Moth:

  • Fungal diseases include Maggot disease, Flacherie and Green muscardine.
  • Polyhedroses is a bacterial disease.
  • Pebrine is a protozoan disease.

Apiculture:
Apis indica is the Indian honeybee used in apicultural industry.

Classification:

Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Apidae
Genus: Apis
Species: Indica

  • Other honey-producing bees are Rock bee (Apis dorsata) and Little bee (Apis florea).
  • Apis melifera is a European variety of honeybee.
  • Apis dorsata or Rock bee is a wild variety of honeybee.
  • It is larger in size. It builds huge combs on rocks or trees. It cannot be domesticated.
  • Apis florea is the smallest honeybee. It generally builds combs in bushes.
  • Apis mellifera is large in size. It is also used in commercial apiculture.
  • The enemies of honeybees include spiders, lizards, ants, bears, monkeys, wasps, wax moths, etc.

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