Preservation of Whole Blood:
Various Anticoagulants Used for Preserving Whole Blood are as Follows:
Acidified citrate dextrose solution (ACD)
About 15 ml of ACD is added to 100 ml of blood to be preserved.
Blood can be preserved up to 21 days in ACD.
Citrate phosphate dextrose solution (CPD)
About 14 ml of CPD is added to 100 ml of blood to be preserved.
Blood can be preserved up to 28 days in CPD
Citrate phosphate dextrose with adenine (CPD-A)
About 14 ml of CPD - A is added to 100 ml of blood to be
Blood can be preserved up to 35 days in CPD-A.
Contents of Preservatives and their Role:
Citrate: Prevents coagulation of blood. It does so
by removing Ca+ ions during preservation.
Dextrose: Provides energy and necessary nutrients to
the blood cells and keeps them healthy.
Phosphate and Adenine: Increase the rate of survival of RBC.
Advantages of Dextran,
for Blood Plasma:
Dextran is a substitute for blood plasma.
It has the following advantages over blood plasma:
It can be stored without refrigeration. It does not transmit pathogens that
can be found in blood. It does not produce toxic reactions in the body. It is
alsoexpensive compared to plasma.
Advantages of Perflurocarbons
a RBC Substitute:
Since Perflurocarbons exchange gases
by simple diffusion, it has been observed that they load and unload oxygen
faster then haemoglobin.
They also have low toxicity.
Harmful Effects of Smoking:
Tobacco smoke contains many chemical substances that are
They may occur either as gases or particulates.
Gases present in tobacco smoke are carbon monoxide (CO),
hydrogen cyanide etc.
CO combines with haemoglobin present in
the blood and forms carboxyhaemoglobin.
This reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
As a result of this the oxygen supply to heart, brain and other
muscles is reduced.
This is one of the causes for the development of heart diseases
Nicotine is one of the dangerous particulate substance
present in tobacco smoke.
It is both a stimulant and a poison. It is carcinogenic.
It also increases the blood pressure and rate of heartbeat.
Thus, increasing the risk of heart diseases.
Polycyclic hydrocarbons are also carcinogenic and can cause oral
and lung cancer.
Long term effects of alcohol include gastritis, cirrhosis of
liver, delirium tremens and Korsakoff's syndrome.
Delirium tremens and Korsakoff's
syndromes are mental disorders.
- Most of the drugs that are
abused are obtained from plants. Example: Cocaine is obtained from
leaves of coca plant.
- Cocaine acts as a
stimulant. The active ingredient present in cocaine hydrochloride
- Common hallucinogens are
obtained from the plant Cannabis sativa.
- Charas is the name used for the
crude resin of cannabis.
- The active ingredient in charas and hashish is THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)
- These chemicals produce
hallucinations and delusions.
- Narcotic drugs are obtained
from the opium plant (Papaver somniferous).
- Opium is the dried juice
produced from the poppy or fruit.
- Purified drugs like
codeine, morphine and heroin are extracted from raw opium.