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MHT-CET : Biology Entrance Exam

MHT - CET : Biology - Classification Know More

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  • Grouping of plants and animals in a scientific way is called taxonomy. 'Taxis' means arrangement, while 'nomos' means laws. The term taxonomy was coined by A.P. Candolle.
  • The concept of species was first described by the English philosopher and naturalist, John Ray. He suggested that while classifying the plants, all the parts of the plant should be taken into consideration.
  • Morphological concept of species was given by Linnaeus. Morphologically well-differentiated species with weak reproductive isolation are morphospecies.
  • The modern concept of species, i.e. the biological concept was given by Ernst Mayr. According to him the species which show interbreeding and are reproductively isolated from other groups are called biological species. In this concept, since the word 'interbreeding' is related with biological process, it is called biological concept.
  • The systems of classification have evolved in a stepwise manner from the earlier times to the present times. A system of classification can be artificial, natural or phylogenetic.
  • In the artificial system of classification, only few or one character is selected at random and the plants are arranged into different groups according to these characters. Linnaeus system is the best known artificial system.
  • In the natural system of classification, all the important characters are considered and plants are classified according to their related characters. All the modern systems of classification are natural system. Bentham and Hooker's system of classification is the natural system.
  • The phylogenetic system of classification, is based on the concept of evolution. A German botanist Engler proposed this system in 1886. Work of an English botanist, Hutchinson on this system was given in 1926.
  • The phylogenetic system was published in an expanded form in 'Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamiliem'. This is composed of 23 volumes and whole range of plant kingdom is covered.
  • The principle involved in the phylogenetic system covers the increasing complexity of flowers.
  • Carlous Linnaeus made the practice of binomial nomenclature a rule. The system was given in his book 'Species Plantarum' in 1753. Before this, in 1737, Linnaeus published 'Genera Plantarum'.
    Species Plantarum is the basis for plant classification. Animal classification is given in the 10th edition of 'Systema Naturae' (1758).
  • International rules of binomial nomenclature were approved by the International Botanical Congress in 1905 at Vienna. Accordingly:

1.      Out of the two words genus is written first, followed by species.

2.      The first letter of genus should start with capital letter.

3.      Both the words should be underlined when written and italicised when printed.

4.      The name of the author who founded that name is given after the species, usually in an abbreviated form. To quote the author's name is called citation.

  • In the binomial system, the first word is the genus, which is usually a noun, while the second word is a species which is an adjective.
  • Binomial names of some plants:
    Mango - Mangifera indica
    Rubber - Ficus elastica
    Pea - Pisum sativum
    Sunflower - Helianthus annus
    Wheat - Triticum sativum

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