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MHT-CET : Biology Entrance Exam

MHT - CET : Biology - Biotechnology Know More

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  • Antibiotics
    Various antibiotics and their microbial source is given below:

 

Antibiotics

Microbial Source

1.

Streptomycin

Streptomyces griseus

2.

Chloromycetin

Streptomyces venezuelae

3.

Vanomycin

Streptomyces orientalis

4.

Erythromycin

Streptomyces erythreus

5.

Neomycin

Streptomyces fradiae

6.

Penicillin

Penicillium notatum, Penicillium chrysogenum

  •  
    • Antibiotics are produced by certain microbes.
    • They are selectively toxic, i.e., they destroy certain type of cells but do not damage others.
    • They are used to destroy pathogens.
    • Some of the antibiotics are also used to treat cancer.
    • These are also selectively toxic as they damage only the cancerous cells.
  • Antibacterial Antibiotics
    • Bacteria can be classified as gram positive (G+) or gram negative (G-).
    • Bacterial infections are therefore classified as either G+ or G- depending upon the type of bacteria that caused them.
    • These bacteria have certain characteristics that help determine their sensitivity to antibiotics.
    • Some antibiotics are highly effective against G+ infections and others for G- .
    • These antibiotics are known as narrow spectrum antibiotics.
      For example, erythromycin is used to treat G+ infections.
    • Some antibiotics are effective against a wide range of both G+ and G- infections.
    • They are known as broad spectrum antibiotics.
      For example,tetracycline is a broad spectrum antibiotic.
  • Use of Antibiotics in the Treatment of various Diseases

Antibiotics

Used in Treatment of

Penicillin

Pharyngitis, syphilis, gonorrhoea, etc.

Erythromycin

Cholera, meningitis, urinary and respiratory tract infections,
pneumonia, etc.

Chloromycetin

Typhoid fever, arthritis, pneumonia, meningitis, etc.

Streptomycin

Tuberculosis, urinary tract infections, dental infection, etc.

Tetracycline

Pharyngitis, genital and urinary tract infections, meningitis arthritis,
cholera, tetanus, gastroenteritis, etc.

  •  
  • Alcoholic Beverages
    (A) Distilled Drinks:

Name of the Drink

Method of Production and Raw Material Used:

Scotch whisky

Distillation of alcohol which is produced from barley

Vodka

Distillation of alcohol from non-grain sources like potato

Rum

Distillation of fermented molasses

Brandy

Distillation of fruit juices and grape wine


  • (B) Non-distilled Drinks:

Name of the Drink

Method of Production and Raw Material Used:

Beer

Fermentation of barley malt

Cider

Fermentation of apple juice

Wine

Fermentation of grape juice

  •  
  • The alcohol content of distilled drinks is 40-50%, whereas, non-distilled drinks have low alcohol content. It is 2-6% in beer, 2-7% in cider and 8-10% in wine.

    Vitamins


    On the basis of their solubility, vitamins are classified into two groups:

Group

Examples

Fat-soluble vitamins

Vitamin A, D, E and K

Water-soluble vitamins

Vitamins of B complex group and vitamin C

  •  
  • Effects of Vitamin Deficiency:

 

Name of the Vitamin

Deficiency Effect

1.

Vitamin A(retinol)

Night blindness, xerophthalmia

2.

Vitamin D(calciferol)

Rickets in children, osteomalacia in adults

3.

Vitamin E(tocopherol)

Loss of fertility

4.

Vitamin K(phylloquinone)

Lack of blood clotting

5.

Vitamin B1(thiamine)

Beri-beri

6.

Vitamin B2(riboflavin)

Ariboflavinosis, photophobia and lesions
of the eye which can lead to cataract

7.

Vitamin B3(niacin)

Pellagra

8.

Vitamin B12(cobalamine)

Pernicious anaemia

9.

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Scurvy

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