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MHT-CET : Biology Entrance Exam

MHT - CET : Biology - Genes Glossary

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                     Gene : Gene is a unit of heredity. It is made up of DNA and controls the inheritance and expression of a character.

                     Eukaryotes: A single-celled or multicellular organism whose cells contain a distinct membrane-bound nucleus.

                     Bacteriophage: A parasitic virus of bacteria.

                     Replication: The process by which genetic material makes a copy of itself is known as replication. For example, replication of DNA.

                     Prokaryotes: An organism such as bacteria and cyanobacteria characterised by the absence of a distinct, membrane-bound nucleus or organelles and by the presence of DNA that is not organised into chromosomes.

                     Codon: It is a sequence of three adjacent nucleotides constituting the genetic code.

                     Transcription: It is the process of formation of mRNA on the DNA strand.

                     Translation: It is the process in which the sequence of the codons on the mRNA is read and the amino acids are arranged accordingly to produce the polypeptide chain.

                     Chromosome: A thread like structure found within the nucleus of all eukaryatic cells.

                     Purines: Double-ring nitrogenous compounds having five carbon atoms and four nitrogen atoms.

                     Pyrimidines: Single-ring nitrogenous compounds having four carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms.

                     Circular DNA: The circular chromosome is called a circular DNA.

                     Plasmids: Self-replicating extrachromosomal segments found in the cyptoplasm and bacterial cells.

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