1. Population is an assemblage of individuals of the same species
occupying a particular locality at a given time.
2. Population keeps changing constantly in its composition,
numbers, distribution, etc. The population dynamics refers to the forces
that work on the population to bring about the specific changes.
3. Three main factors responsible for human population dynamics
· The birth rate or natality
· The death rate or mortality
4. Other factors responsible for population dynamics are:
· Age distribution
· Sex ratio
5. Natality or the birth rate refers to
the rate of birth of new individuals in a population per unit time. It is
expressed as the number of new additions per thousand individuals of the
population in a year. Natality of a population
can be expressed as
B = n/N * 1000
where B is natality or birth rate,
n is the total number of new individuals born in a year,
N is the population of that year.
6. Mortality or death rate refers to the loss of individuals from
a population per unit time. It is expressed as the loss in the number of
individuals per year per thousand individuals of a population.
Mortality of a population can be expressed as
D = n/N * 1000
where D is mortality or death rate,
n is the total number of deaths in the year,
N is the population of that year.
7. The population has grown dramatically after the year 1950.
8. Tremendous increase in the number of individuals of a
population is called population explosion or overpopulation.
9. Increase in birth rate coupled with decrease in death rate is
responsible for population explosion.
10. Problems of Increasing Population
The problems of increasing population can be classified as:
11. Some Specific Problems Caused by Population Explosion are:
· Food Supply
The food production is increasing in an arithmetical order, but at the
same time the population is increasing in a geometrical order.
Shortage of food supplies causes
undernourishment, malnutrition and price hike. Also, shortage of food
disturbs the economy of the nation and loss of foreign exchange due to
Increase in population poses a problem of housing. It disturbs the
To accommodate the increasing population, many forests have been cleared
and many hectares of agricultural land have been converted into
Urbanisation and industrialisation
of major cities has attracted many people from the villages to migrate
towards the already crowded cities. The breakup of joint families into
unit families also further intensifies the problem.
Population explosion leads to growth of unhygienic slums, which are known
to be the breeding ground for epidemics.
The efforts of the government to provide healthcare to all does not have
the desired impact due to increasing population.
· Standard of Living:
of living is the way of life of a person, a family, or people with
reference to the materials and services they use for their comfort,
happiness and well being.
explosion is one of the causes of low standard of living.
explosion decreases the per capita income.
in population affects the standard of living, as it increases the
demand for more houses, adequate supply of food, more jobs, etc.
in demand brings shortage, which in turn results in price hike.
to price hike, the cost of living increases.
affects the standard of living by increasing in the number of
dependents, a subsequent reduction in savings and unemployment.
income leads to poverty, illiteracy and unemployment.
12. Measures to Control Overpopulation:
The control of a family where each family has fewer number of children
say, one or two and proper spacing between children is called family
The problem is tackled from two directions.
· Direct Measures to Control
These measures seek to interfere with the actual process of reproduction
in some way or the other.
· Clinical Direct Approach
In this approach, couples are helped in adoption of birth control
use of various types of mechanical and chemical devices, called
contraceptives, to avoid pregnancy.
use of oral contraceptive pills for suppressing ovulation.
fitting of intrauterine device inside the uterus which prevents the
implantation and development of the fertilised
the couple has the desired number of children (1 or 2), the husband
may undergo vasectomy or the wife may undergo tubectomy.
Government of India has set up many family planning centres in various parts of the country. These centres arrange sterilisation
of both male and females. Necessary birth control advice is also
given to the people.
· Non-clinical Direct Approach
control devices are mass produced by the government agencies and
sold at low prices.
control devices are distributed free to those who cannot buy them.
and other benefits are given to people to encourage them to
undertake birth control operations.
minimum age for marriage is raised from 15 to 18 years for girls and
from 18 to 21 years for boys thus reducing the childbearing period
of married people. Also, mature people couples can be better
attracted easily towards family planning measures.
law has been amended to permit abortion in cases of unwanted
· Indirect or Educational Approach
In the indirect approach motivating to family planning, following
measures are involved:
through the media about the advantages of a small family.
Educational programmes through various mass
media such as radio, TV, newspaper, etc. motivate couples to adopt a
small family norm.
the opinion makers of the society to support the idea of birth
of women's education. Education motivates a woman to know more about
the importance of family planning. Education provides information
about the use of various contraceptives to avoid unwanted pregnancy.
of population education in the syllabi in schools and colleges.
the number of members of Parliament from each state at the 1971
level, so that there will now be no reward for increase of
population in the form of more M.P.s.