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MHT-CET : Biology Entrance Exam

MHT - CET : Biology - Domestication of Animals Page 1

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Domestication:

  • The method of taming wild animals to keep them under control or to accustom them to home life is called domestication.

Poultry

  • Domestication of animals includes the taming or rearing of animals for food or other useful purposes.
  • Poultry is concerned with the domestication of birds for eggs, meat and other economic purposes.
  • It includes chicken, geese, ducks, turkeys, guinea fowls and pigeons.

 

Maintenance of Poultry Includes the Following Steps:

  • Selection of good poultry farms or sheds.
  • Selection of healthy birds of different varieties.
  • Proper sanitation facilities including regular removal of droppings, etc.
  • Provision of pure drinking water and balanced food.
  • Brooding and incubating facilities.
  • Vaccination facilities to prevent diseases.
  • Cross-breeding to raise the productivity of poultry.

 

Economic Importance of Poultry

  • Poultry products like eggs and chicken meat are good sources of protein.
  • The by-products of poultry such as feathers are used for making pillows, quilts and shuttle cocks.
  • Droppings of birds are good organic manure.
  • Poultry also provides employment to a large number of people.

 

Fishery

  • Fishery deals with the capture, culture, collection, preservation, marketing and export of useful aquatic animals for food, and other economic purposes.
  • It mainly includes fish but also includes crustaceans like prawns and lobsters and molluscs like oysters.

 

 

Classification of Fishery

  • Fishery is broadly classified into marine, inland and estuarine fishery.
  • Important marine fishes are Bombay ducks, Sardines, Sharks, Mackerels, Pomfrets, Hilsa, etc.
  • Important inland fish include Catla, Rohu and Mrigal.
  • Inland fishery includes capture and culture of fishery.
  • The practice of fish culture or pisciculture benefits the economic conditions of fishermen who are entirely dependent on fishing.
  • An estuary is a place where the freshwater sources mix with the sea water. It contains brackish water.
  • The important brackish water fishes are Tilapea and Mullet.

 

Crafts and Gears

  • The main fishing craft used in Maharashtra is 'machwa', which can be converted into mechanised boat when required.
  • A type of bag net called 'dol net' is extensively used along the Mumbai and Gujarat coasts.

 

Maintenance of Fishery Involves the Following Steps:

  • Ban on illegal fishing.
  • Avoiding fishing in breeding season.
  • Use of appropriate nets for catching only mature fish.
  • Maintaining trained people for separation of fish according to quality.
  • Proper storage and preservation facilities.
  • Proper transport systems.
  • Use of different culture methods for increasing the production.

 

Economic Importance of Fishery

  • Fish is a rich source of protein.
  • Many valuable products like sharkliver oil, codliver oil, shark skin, fish and fish glue, etc. are obtained from fish.
  • Fishery provides employment to a large number of people.
  • It also has tremendous scope for earning foreign exchange.

 

Sericulture

  • The rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk, mainly for commercial purpose, is called sericulture.
  • The life cycle of the common silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) is completed in four stages, i.e. eggs, larva, pupa and imago.
  • The pupa are killed by placing the cocoons in boiling water and then the silk thread is carefully removed from the cocoon.

 

Maintenance of Sericulture Involves the Following Steps:

  • Cultivation of mulberry trees, on which the silkworms feed.
  • Supply of good quality of eggs of silkworms by cross-breeding with exotic
    races.
  • Rearing of silkworms.
  • Extraction and reeling of silk.

 

Economic Importance of Sericulture is as Follows:

  • Silk is famous for its beauty, softness and durability.
  • It is used for making sarees and other garments.
  • It is also used in the preparation of parachute cords, fishing lines and insulation cords.
  • It is undertaken as a cottage industry providing employment to a large number of people and also has a wide scope for export.

 

Apiculture

  • The rearing of honeybees for the production of honey and wax is called Apiculture.
  • The most common honeybee that is used in apicultural industry in our country is Apis indica.
  • Honeybees are social insects and show a division of labour.
  • They are distinguished into queens, drones and workers.
  • Nowadays apiculture is done with the help of artificial beehives.
  • In this case, after the colony of honeybee is well established, the comb foundations are removed and the honey is separated by centrifugation without killing the honeybees.

 

Maintenance of Apiculture Involves the Following Steps:

  • Use of artificial beehives.
  • Selection of good variety of honeybees.
  • Selection of good site for apiary.
  • Provision of food in the form of sugar and pollen grains to honeybees.
  • Proper cleanliness of the hive.
  • Protection of hive from ants and termites.
  • Use of modern methods for extraction of honey.

 

Economic Importance of Apiculture:

  • Honey, which is a product of Apiculture, has great medicinal value.
    It is used as a base in the preparation of many ayurvedic and Unani medicines.
  • It is considered to be a laxative and a blood purifier and is also used for the prevention of cough and cold.
  • Bee wax is used in the manufacture of candles, ointments, paints, varnishes, cosmetics, lubricants, etc.
  • Honeybees also help in cross-pollination among many plants of economic importance.
  • Apiculture also provides employment, particularly to rural people.

 

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