Physics
The syllabus in Physics aims at providing the learners with sufficient conceptual background which would eventually make them competent to meet the challenges of academic as well as professional courses during their corresponding courses after AICEE. Some of the salient features of the updated syllabus are :
 Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content.
 Promoting processskills, problemssolving abilities and applications of basic concepts in
real life situations.
 Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols and formulations as per international standards.
 Emphasis on Physicsrelated technological/industrial aspects to meet the changing demand
of society.
 Providing logical sequences of the units of subject matter and proper placement of
concepts.
 Emphasis on inclusion of indigenous knowledge and Indian contribution to Physics and
technology.
 Reducing curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/content within the
discipline.
 Inclusion of emerging areas such as principals of communication and space/satellite
communication.
Physical World and Measurement
Physicsscope and excitement; Physics, technology and society. Forces in nature, conservation laws; Examples of gravitational, electromagnetic and nuclear forces from dailylife experiences (qualitative description only) Need for measurement; Units of measurement; Systems of units; SI units, Fundamental and derived units, Length, mass and time measurements; Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments, Errors in measurement; Significant figures. Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
Kinematics
Motion in a straight line, Positiontime graph, speed and velocity, Uniform and nonuniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocitytime, positiontime graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment). Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities; Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and notation; Equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; Addition and substraction of vectors; Unit vector, Resolution of a vector in a planeRectangular components, Multiplication of vectorsscalar and vector products; vectors in three dimensions (elementary idea only). Motion in a plane, Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration  Projectile motion, Uniform circular motion.
Laws of Motion
Force and inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; Momentum, Newton’s second law of motion, Impulse; Newton’s third law of motion; Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications; Equilibrium of concurrent forces; Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication; Examples of variablemass situation. Dynamics of uniform circular motion; Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road); Inertial and noninertial frames (elementary idea).
Work, Energy and Power
Work done by a constant force and a variable force; Kinetic energy, Power; Workenergy theorem. Notion of Potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (Kinetic and potential energies), Nonconservative forces; elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions. Different forms of energies in nature, Massenergy equivalence (qualitative idea only).
Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
Centre of mass of a twoparticle system, generalisation to N particles, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion, Application to some familiar systems; centre of mass of a rigid body. Moment of a force, Torque, angular momentum, physical meaning of angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples (Planetary motion). Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; Moment of inertia and its physical significance, radius of gyration, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems (statements without proofs); Moment of inertia of circular ring, disc, cylinder without slipping. Examples of Binary system in nature (Binary Stars, Earthmoon system, diatomic molecules).
Gravitation
The universal law of gravitation, Gravitational constant; Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with the altitude, latitude, depth and rotation of the earth; Mass of the earth. Gravitational potential energy near the surface of the earth, gravitational potential; Escape velocity, orbital velocity of satellite, Weightlessness, motion of satellite, geostationary and polar satellites; Statement of Kepler’s law of planetary motion; proof of second and third law (circular orbits); Inertial and Gravitational mass.
Mechanics of Solids and Fluids
States of matter, Interatomic and intermolecular forces. A. Solids : Elastic behaviour, StressStrain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, some practical examples. B. Fluids : Pressure due to fluid column, Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes), Effect of gravity on fluid pressure, Buoyancy, floatation and Archimedes’ principle; Viscosity, Strokes’ law, Terminal velocity, Streamline flow, Reynold’s number, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, applications of surface tension ideas in (i) formation of drops and bubbles, (ii) capillary rise.
Heat and Thermodynamics
Kinetic theory of gases  assumptions, concept of pressure, Kinetic energy and temperature; mean, rms and most probable speed, degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only), concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number. Thermal equilibrium and temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics), Heat, work and internal energy; Thermal expansionthermometry; First law of thermodynamics, specific heat, specific heat of gases as constant volume and pressure (monoatomic, diatomic gases); specific heat of solids (Dulong and Petit’s law). Thermodynamical variables and equation of state, phase diagrams; ideal gas equation, isothermal and adiabatic processes; reversible and irreversible processes; Carnot engine and refrigerator or heat pump. Efficiency and coefficient of performance of heat engines; second law of thermodynamics (statement only) and some practical applications. Transfer of heat  conduction, convection and radiation; Thermal conductivity of solids; Black body radiation  Kirchhoff’s law, Wien’s displacement law, Stefan’s law (statements only); Newton’s law of cooling; solar constant and surface temperature of the sun.
Oscillations
Periodic motion  period, frequency, displacement as a function of time and periodic functions, Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; Phase, uniform circular motion and simple harmonic motion; oscillations of a springrestoring force and force constant; Energy in S.H.M.  Kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulumderivation of expression for its time period; Free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance; coupled oscillations.
Waves
Longitudinal and transverse waves, wave motion, speed of wave motion, Displacement relation for a progressive wave; Principle of superposition of waves, Reflections of waves, Reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.
Electrostatics
Frictional electricity, charges and their conservation; Coulomb’s law  Forces between two point electric charges, Forces between multiple electric charges; Superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field and its physical significance, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; Electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole and behaviour of dipole in a uniform electric field. Electric potentialphysical meaning, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipoles in an electrostatic field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged inifinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Conductors and insulators, presence of free charges and bound charges inside a conductor; Dielectrics and electric polarisation, general concept of a capacitor and expacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, energy stored in a capacitor, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates; Van de Graff generator.
Current Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, VI characteristics, Exceptions of Ohm’s law (Nonlinear VI characteristics), electrical resistivity and conductivity, classification of materials in terms of conductivity; Superconductivity (elementary idea); Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; combination of resistances  series and parallel. Temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, Potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchoff’s laws  illustration by simple applications, Wheatstone bridge and its applications for temperature measurements, Metre bridge  special case of wheatstone bridge. Potentiometer  principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells. Electric power, thermal effects of current and Joule’s law; Chemical effects of currentFaraday’s laws of electrolysis; Electrochemical cells  Primary and secondary cells, solid states cells. Thermoelectricity  origin, elementary ideas of Seebeck effect, Thermocouple, Thermo emf, neutral and inversion temperatures. Measurement of temperature using a thermo couple.
Magnetic Effect of Current and Magnetism
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment, BiotSavart law, magnetic field due to an infinitely long current carrying straight wire and a circular loop; Ampere’s circuit law and its applications to straight and toroidal solenoids; Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron; Force on current  carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Forces between two parallel currentcarrying conductorsdefinition of ampere; Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field, moving coil galvanometer  its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment; Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron; Magnetic field intensity due to magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along the axis and perpendicular to the axis; Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, Magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements; Paradia and ferromagnetic substances with examples, Electromagnets and permanent magnets.
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current
Electromagnetic induction, Faraday’s laws, Induced emf and current, Lenz’s law, Eddy currents, self and mutual inductance. Alternating current, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage, reactance and impedance; LC oscillations, LCR series circuit (Phasor diagram)  Resonant circuits and Qfactor; Power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and Transformer.
Electromagnetic Waves
Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only); Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
Electromagnetic spectrum (Radiomicrowaves, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses; Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.
Optics
Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, spherical lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker’s formula; Magnification, Power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact; Refraction and dispersion of light due to a prism, Scattering of light  Blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments  Compound microscope, astronomical telescope (refraction and reflection type) and their magnifying powers. Wave front and Huygen’s principles; Reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts (qualitative idea); Interference  Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light; Diffraction  diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum, difference between interference and diffraction; Resolving power of microscope and telescope; Polarisation, Plane polarised light, Brewster’s law; Use of plane polarised light and polaroids
Dual Nature of Matter and Radiations
Photoelectric effect, Einstein Photoelectric equation  particle nature of light, photocell, Matter waves  wave nature of particles, DeBroglie relation, Davison and Germer experiment.
Atomic Nucleus
Alphaparticle scattering experiment, size of the nucleus, composition of the nucleus  protons and neutrons. Nuclear instability  Radioactivity  Alpha, Beta and Gamma particles/rays and their properties, radioactive decay law, simple explanation of adecay, bdecay and gdecay. Massenergy relation, mass defect, Binding Energy per nucleon, its variation with mass number, Nature of nuclear forces, nuclear reaction  Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion.
Solids and SemiConductor Devices
Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), difference between metals, insulators and semiconductors using band theory; Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, pn junction, Semiconductor diode  characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier, solar cell, photodiode, LED, zener diode as a voltage regulator; Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; Transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator; Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR); Elementary ideas about I.C.
Principles of Communication
Elementary idea of analog and digital communication; Need for modulation; Modulation  amplitude, frequency and pulse modulation; Elementary idea about demodulation, Data transmission and retrieval  Fax and Modem.
Space Communication :
Propagation of E.M. waves in atmosphere. Sky and space wave propagation. Satellite communication. Applications in Remote Sensing. Line Communication : 2wire lines, cables, telephone links; optical communication (optical fibre, Lasers), elementary principle of light modulation.
