Recent scientific developments have enlarged the scope of Biology to a great extent. The genomics, particularly the study of human genome, applications of basic principles of Bio-technology in diagnosis and treatment of diseases and also the improvement of crops and animal breeds would influence our lives to a great extent. The genetically modified organisms and their products, new technologies for abatement of pollution and environment friendly development are the immediately concerns for both quality of life and environment. The updated syllabus attempts to address many such immediate concerns through study of related basic aspects of Biology. The issues related to health, agriculture, environment and sustainable development have been covered to highlight the role of Biology in improving quality of life. It is expected that the knowlede gained through the study of different topics and the skills acquired through the prescribed practical work will prepare the learners, besides equipping them for higher studies, to live more meaningfully and contribute in improvement of both quality of living as well as quality of environment.
The study of prescribed syllabus in the subject is expected to :
- promote understanding of basic principles of biology.
- expose the learners to emerging knowledge and its relevance to individuals and society.
- acquaint the students with benefits of knowing about issues related to nutrition, health, population, environment and development.
- encourage rationale/specific attitude to issues related to population, environment and development.
- Develop skills essential to study and understand complexities of living world and harmonious co-existence.
- enhance awareness about environmental issues, problems and the appropriate solutions.
- develop appropriate environmental ethics and values.
- enable the students to appreciate the complexity of living world and the role of Biology vis-a-vis other disciplines.
- enable the students to appreciate role of Biology in dispelling myths, misconceptions and misbeliefs.
- Biology and its branches; relationships with other sciences; scientific methods in Biology; historical breakthroughs; scope of Biology and career options; role of Biology in dispelling myths and misbeliefs; characters of living organisms, (elementary idea of metabolism, transfer of energy at molecular level, open and closed system, homoeostasis, growth and reproduction, adaptation, survival, death).
- Origin and evolution of Life - Oparin-Haldane theory, Miller Experiment; theories of evolution; evidences of evolution; sources of variations (mutation, recombination, genetic drift, migration, natural selection); concept of species; speciation and isolation (geographical and reproductive); origin of species.
Diversity of Life
- Variety of living organisms; Systematics; need, history and types of classifications (artificial, natural, phylogenetic); biosystematics; binomial nomenclature; Two kingdom system, Five kingdom system, their merits and demerits, status of bacteria and virus; botanical gardens and herbaria; zoological parks and museums.
- Salient features of various plant groups; classification of angiosperms up to series level (Bentham and Hooker’s system).
- Salient features of non-chordates up to phylum level and chordates up to class level).
Cell and Cell Division
- Cell as a basic unit of life — discovery of cell, cell theory, cell as a self-contained unit; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; unicellular and multicellular organisms; tools and tech75 niques (compound microscope, electron microscope and cell fractionation); Ultrastructure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell - cell wall, cell membrane - unit membrane concept (fluid mosaic model); membrane transport; cellular movement (exocytosis, endocytosis); cell organelles and their functions - nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosomes, microtubules, centriole, vacuole, cytoskeleton, cilia and flagella, ribosomes.
- Molecules of cell; inorganic and organic materials — water, salt, mineral ions, carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, proteins, nucleotides, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA); Enzymes (properties, chemical nature and mechanism of action); vitamins, hormones and steroids.
- Cell cycle : significance of cell division; amitosis, mitosis and meiosis; karyotype analysis.
- Continuity of life - heredity, variation; Mendel’s laws of inheritance; chromosomal basis of inheritance; other patterns of inheritance - incomplete dominance, multiple allelism, quantitative inheritance.
- Chromosomes - bacterial cell and eukaryotic cell; parallelism between genes and chromosomes; genome, linkage and crossing over; gene mapping; recombination; sex chromosomes; sex determination; sex linked inheritance; mutation and chromosomal aberrations; Human genetics - methods of study, genetic disorders.
- DNA as a genetic material - its structure and replication; structure of RNA and its role in protein synthesis; Gene expression - transcription and translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; regulation of gene expression, induction and repression - housekeeping genes; nuclear basis of differentiation and development; oncogenes.
- Basics of Recombinant DNA technology; cloning; gene bank; DNA fingerprinting; genomics - principles and applications, transgenic plants, animals and microbes.
Morphology of Plants and Animals
- Morhpology - root, stem and leaf, their structure and modification; Inflorescence, flower, fruit, seed and their types; Description of Poaceae, Liliaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Brassicaceae and Asteraceae.
- Internal structure of plants - Tissues (meristematic and permanent); tissue systems; anatomy of root, stem and leaf of monocot and dicot; secondary growth.
- Morphology of Animals - Salient features of earthworm, cockroach and rat; tissue systems, structure and function of tissues - epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous.
Physiology of Plants
- Cell as a physiological unit; water relations - absorption and movement (diffusion, osmosis, plasmolysis, permeability, water potential, imbibition); theories of water translocation - root pressure, transpiration pull; transpiration - significance, factors affecting rate of transpiration; mechanism of stomatal opening and closing (Potassium ion theory).
- Mineral nutrition - functions of minerals, essential major elements and trace elements; deficiency symptoms of elements; translocation of solutes, nitrogen and nitrogen metabolism with emphasis on biological nitrogen fixation.
- Photosynthesis - significance, site of photosynthesis (functional aspect of chlorophyll structure); photochemical and biosynthetic phases; electron transport system; photophosphorylation (cyclic and non-cyclic); C3 and C4 Pathway; photorespiration; factors affecting photosynthesis; mode of nutrition (autotrophic, heterotrophic - saprophytic, parasitic and insectivorous plants), chemosynthesis.
- Mechanism of respiration - glycolysis, Krebs cycle, pentose pathway, anaerobic respiration; respiratory quotient; compensation point; fermentation.
Physiology of Animals
- Nutrition and its types; nutrients - food and vitamins; Intracellular and extracellular digestion; digestive system of invertebrate (cockroach); digestive system and process in humans (digestion, ingestion, absorption, assimilation, egestion); role of enzymes and hormones in digestion; malnutrition and undernutrition; disorders related to nutrition.
- Gaseous exchange in animals (earthworm, cockroach); respiration in humans - respiratory organs, mechanism; breathing and its regulation : transport of gases through blood; common respiratory disorders - prevention and cure.
- Circulation of body fluids - open system in cockroach; closed system in humans, blood and its composition, structure and pumping action of human heart; pulmonary and systemic circulation; heart beat and pulse; rhythmicity of heart-beat, blood related disorders - hypertension, atheroma and arteriosclerosis; ECG; pacemaker; lymphatic system, immunity and immune system.
- Nitrogenous waste elimination - ammonetelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; excretory system of cockroach and humans; composition and formation of urine; role of kidney in osmoregulation, kidney failure; dialysis, kidney transplantation; role of ADH; role of liver in excretion.
- Locomotion and movements; human skeleton - axial and appendicular including cranium and rib cage bones; Joints and their types; bone, cartilage and their disorders (arthritis, osteoporosis); mechanism of muscle contraction; red and white muscles in movements.
- Nervous coordination in cockroach and humans; human nervous system - structure and functions of brain and spinal cord, transmission of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory receptors; structure and function of sense organs - eye, ear, nose and tongue.
- Human endocrine system; hormones and their functions; hormonal imbalance and diseases; role of hormones as messengers and regulators; hypothalamo - hypophysial axis; feedback controls.
Reproduction, Growth and Development
- Modes of reproduction in flowering plants - vegetative propagation (natural and artificial), significance of vegetative propagation; micropropagation; sexual reproduction - development of male and female gametophytes; pollination (types and factors); double fertilisation, incompatibility, embryo development, parthenogenesis and parthenocarpy.
- Characteristics of Plant growth; growth regulators (phytohormones) - Auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, ABA; seed germination - mechanism and factors affecting germination, role of growth regulators in seed dormancy; senescence; abscission; stress factors (salt and water) and growth; plant movement - geotropism, phototropism, turgor growth movements (tropic, nastic and nutation), process of flowering - photoperiodism, vernalisation.
- Types of reproduction - a general account (asexual and sexual); human male and female reproductive systems; Reproductive cycle in human female, gametogenesis; Fertilization - physical and chemical events; development of zygote upto 3 germinal layers and their derivatives; extra-embryonic membranes; general aspects of placenta.
- Cellular growth - growth rate and growth curve; hormonal control of growth; mechanism and types of regeneration; ageing - cellular and extracellular changes; theories of ageing.
Ecology and Environment
- Organisms and their environment; factors - air, water, soil, biota, temperature and light; range of tolerance; ecological adaptation.
- Levels of organisation - population, species, community, ecosystem and biosphere; Ecological interactions - symbiosis, mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, predation and competition.
- Ecosystem - structure and functions; productivity; energy flow; ecological efficiencies; decomposition and nutrient cycling; major blomes - forests, grasslands and deserts.
- Ecological Succession - types and mechanism.
- Natural resources - types, use and misuse of natural resources.
- Environmental pollution - kinds, sources and abatement of air, water, soil and noise pollution.
- Global environmental changes; Greenhouse gases, global warming, sea level rise and ozone layer depletion.
- Biotic resources - terrestrial and aquatic including marine resources; bio-diversity - benefits and assessment; threats, endangered species, extinctions; conservation of biodiversity (biosphere reserves and other protected areas); National and International efforts - both governmental and non-governmental; environmental ethics and legislation.
Biology in Human Welfare
- Population, environment and development; Population growth and factors - (natality, mortality, immigration, emigration, age and sex ratio); impact of population growth; reproductive health; common problems of adolescence (Drugs, Alcohol and Tobacco); social and moral implications; mental and addictive disorders; Risks of indiscriminate use
of drugs and antibiotics; population as a resource.
- Food production, breeding, improved varieties, biofertilizers, plant tissue culture and its applications; Brief account of some common crop and animal diseases; biopesticides; genetically modified food; bio-war, biopiracy; biopatent; biotechnology and sustainable agriculture.
- Recent advances in vaccines; organ transplantation; immune disorders; modern techniques in disease diagnosis; Elementary knowledge of Haemoglobin estimation and estimation of sugar and urea in blood, TLC, DLC, ESR, lipid profile, ELISA and VIDAL tests; AIDS, STD, cancer (types, causes, diagnosis, treatment); biotechnology in therapeutics - hormones, interferon and immuno modulations.
- Basic concepts of ECG, normal ECG, EEG, CT Scan, MRI and ultrasound.