Introduction and Measurement
What is Physics? Scope and excitement; Physics in relation to science, society and technology, Need for measurement, units for measurement, systems of units – SI : fundamental and derived units. Dimensions and their applications. Others of magnitude, Accuracy and errors in measurement – random and instrumental errors, Significant figures and rounding off, Graphs, Trignometric functions, simple indeas of difference and integration.
Description of Motion in One Dimension
Objects in motion in one dimension, Motion in straight line, unit and direction for time and position measurement. Uniform motion, its graphical representation and formulae, speed and velocity, relative velocity, instantaneous velocity. Unifomaly acceleratd motion, its velocity – time graph, position-time graph and formulae. General relation between position and velocity, application accelerated motion, Acceleration in general one – dimensional motion.
Description of Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
Vectors and scalars, vectors in two dimensions, general – vectors, vector addition and multiplication by a real number zero – vector and its properties. Resolution of a vector in place, rectangular components. Scalar and Vector Products. Motion in two dimensions, cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration – projectile motion, general relation among position – velocity – acceleratin for motion in a plane – uniform circular motion. Motion of objects in three dimensional space (elementary ideas).
Laws of Motion
Force and inertia, first law of motion. Momentum, second law of motion, impulse, some kinds of forces in nature. Third law of motion, conservation of momentum, rocket propulsion. Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication, Inertial and non-inertial frames (elementary ideas).
Work., Energy and Power
Work done by a constant force and by a variable force, unit of work, kinetic energy, power, Elastic collision in one and two dimensions, Potential energy, gravitational potential energy, and its conversion to kinetic energy, potential energy of a spring. Different forms of energy, mass energy equivalence, conservation of energy.
Centre of mass of a two – particle system, momentum conservation and center of mass motion. Centre of mass of rigid body, general motion of a rigid body, nature of rotational motion, rotational motion of a single particle in two dimensions only, torque, angular momentum and its geometrical and physical meaning, conservation of angular momentum, examples of circular motion ( car on a level circular road, car on banked road, pendulum swinging in a vertical plane). Moment of inertia, its – physical significance, parallel axis and perpendicular axis theorem (statements only).
Acceleration due to gravity, one dimensional motion under gravity, two-dimensional motion under gravity. Universal law of gravitation, inertia and gravitational mass, variations in the acceleration due to gravity of the earth, orbital velocity, geostationary satellites, gravitational potential energy near the surface of earth, gravitational potential, escape velocity.
Head and Thermodynamics
Specific heat, specific heat at constant volume and constant pressure of ideal gas, relation between them, first law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics state, equation of state and isothermals, pressure – temperature phase diagram. Thermodynamic processes (reversible, irreversible, isothermal, adiabatic). Carnot cycle, second law of thermodynamics, efficiency of heat engines : Conduction, convection and radiation. Thermal conductivity, black body radiation, Wien’s law, Stefan’s Law, Newton’s law of cooling.
Periodic motion, simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation of motion. Oscillations due to a spring, kinetic energy and potential energy in S.H.M., Simple pendulum, physical concepts of forced oscillations, reasonance and damped oscillations.
Wave motion, speed of wave motion, principle of super-positions, reflection of waves, harmonic waves (qualitative treatment only) standing waves and normal modes and its graphical representation. Beats, Doppler effect, Musical scale, acoustics of building.
Frictional electricity, charges and their conservation, elementary unit, Coulomb’s law, dielectric constant, electric field, electric field due to a point charge, di-pole field and dipoles’ behaviour in an uniform (2-dimensional) electric field, flux, Gauss’s law in simple geometrics, Conductors and insulators, presence of free charges and bound charges inside a conductor, Dielectric (concept only), Capacitance (parallel plate), series and parallel, energy of a capacitor, high voltage generators, atmospheric electricity.
Introduction (flow of current), sources of e.m.f. (cells : simple, secondary, chargeable), electric current, resistance of different materials, temperature dependence, thermistor, specific resistivity, colour code for carbon resistances. Ohm’s law. Kirchoffs law, resistances in series and parallel, series and parallel circuits, Wheatstone’s bridge, measurement of voltages and currents, potentiometer.
Thermal and Chemical Effects of Currents
Electric power, heating effects of current, chemical effects and law of electrolysis, simple concept of thermoelectricity, thermocouple.
Magnetic Effect of Currents
Oersted’s observation Biot-Savart’s law (magnetic field due to a current element), magnetic field due to a straight wire, circular loop and solenoid. Force on a moving charge in a uniform magnetic field (Lorentz force), cyclotron (simple idea), forces and torques on currents in magnetic field, forces between two currents, definition of ampere, moving coil galvanometer, ammeter and voltmeter.
Bar magnet (comparison with a solenoid), lines of force, torque on a magnet in a magnetic field, earth’s magnetic field, tangent galvanometer, vibration magnetometer, para, dia and ferromagnetism (simple idea).
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Induced e.m.f., Faraday’s Law, Lenz’s Law, Induction, self and mutual inductance, alternating currents, impedance and reactance, power in a.c., electrical machines and devices (transformer, induction coil, generator, simple motors, choke and starter).
Electromagnetic Waves (Qualitative Treatment)
Electromagnetic oscillations, some history of electromagnetic waves (Maxwell, Hertz, Bose, Marconi). Electromagnetic spectrum (radio, micro-waves, infra-red, optical, ultraviolet, X-rays, beta and gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses and propagation, properties of atmosphere w.r.t various parts of electromagnetic spectrum.
Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Ray optics as a limiting case of wave optics, reflection, refraction, total internal reflection, optical fiber, curved mirrors, lenses, mirror and lens formulae, Dispersion by a prism, spectrometer and spectra-absorption and emmission; scattering, rainbow. Magnification and resolving power, telescope (astronomical), microscope.
Electrons and Photons
Discovery of electron, e/m for an electron, electrical conduction in gases, particle nature of light, Einstein’s photoelectric equation, photocells.
Atoms, Molecules and Nuclei
Rutherford model of the atom, Bohr model, energy quantization, hydrogen spectrum, composition of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, size of nucleus, radioactivity, mass energy nuclear fission and fusion, nuclear holo-caust.
Solids and Semiconductor Devices
Crystal structure-Unit cell; single, poly and liquid crystal (concepts only)
Energy bands in solids, conductors, insulators and semi-conductors, PN Junction, diodes, Junction transistor, diode as rectifier, transistor as an amplifier and oscillator, logicgates and combination of gates.