KEAM Syllabus for Physics
Unit 1: Introduction and Measurement
Measurement of length, dimensional analysis and applications, least count in measuring instruments (e.g. screw gauge, vernier calipers etc.), mass and time, accuracy and errors in measurement, significant and rounding off principles, order of magnitude, random and instrumental errors, physics-scope and excitement, society and technology-inventions, physics in relation to science, Nobel prize winners and topics, names of scientists and their fields, units for measurement-systems of units, fundamental and derived units, conversion from other systems to S.I units, units for measurement-system of units, S.I units.
Unit-2: Description of Motion in One Dimension
Uniformly accelerated motion, elementary ideas of calculus-application to motion-different and integration, position-time and graph, objects in motion in one dimension-motion in a straight line, velocity-time graph and formulae, uniform motion-its graphical representation and formulae, ideas of relative velocity with expressions and graphical representations, speed and velocity-instantaneous velocity.
Unit -3: Description of Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
Motion in two dimensions-projectile motion, relation between centripetal acceleration and angular speed, vectors and scalars, ideas of uniform circular motion, unit vector, linear and angular velocity, vectors in two and three dimensions, rectangular components, addition and multiplication, resolution of vector in plane, scalar and vector products.
Unit-4: Laws of Motion
Rocket propulsion, conservation of linear momentum, second law of motion, first law of motion, equilibrium of concurrent forces, force and inertia, impulse, momentum, forces in nature, example of variable mass situation, third law of motion.
Dynamics of uniform circular motion-centrifugal and centripetal forces, static and kinetic friction, lubrication, examples: banking of curves and centrifuge, rolling friction, internal and non-inertial frames (elementary ideas), law of friction.
Unit-5: Work, Power and Energy
Gravitational potential energy and its conversion to kinetic energy, different forms of energy, conservative and non-conservative forces, potential energy of a spring, conservation of energy, spring constant, power, mass-energy equivalence (elementary ideas), work done by a constant force and by a variable force, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions, units of work-energy-kinetic and potential forms.
Unit-6: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body Rotation
Equilibrium of rigid bodies, moment of inertia and its physical significance, moment of inertia of circular ring and disc, center of mass of a two particle system, applications to some familiar systems, physical meaning of angular momentum, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, radius of gyration, comparison of linear and rotational motions, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems (statement only), cylinder rolling without slipping, generalization to N particles, application to some familiar systems, momentum of conservation and center of mass motion, moment of a force, angular momentum, torque, conservation of angular momentum with some examples, eg. Planetary motion.
Gravitational potential, weightlessness, statement of Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, motion of geostationary and polar satellites, escape velocity, proof of second and third laws, orbital velocity of satellite, relation between inertial and gravitational masses, gravitational constant (G) and acceleration due to gravity (G), latitude, gravitational potential energy near the surface of the earth, universal law of gravitation, weight and gravitation, variation of g with altitude, mass of earth, depth and rotation of earth.
Uint-8: Mechanics of Solids and Fluids
Effect of gravity on fluid pressure, atmosphere pressure, examples of drops and babbles, buoyancy, surface energy and surface tension, laws of floatation and Archimedes principles, angle of contact, capillary rise, Stokes law, viscosity, Reynold’s number, sphere falling through liquid column, streamline flow, equation of continuity, interatomic and intermolecular forces, Bernoulli’s theorem and applications, stress-strain relationship, different states of matter, bulk modulus, Hooke’s law, Youngs modulus, Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes), some practical examples, shear modulus of rigidity, Fluids: Pressure due to fluid column.
Unit-9: Heat and Thermodynamics
Statement of law of equipartition of energy, kinetic theory of gases, kinetic energy and temperature, concept of mean free path and Avogadros’ number, concept of pressure, degrees of freedom, mean-rms and most probable speed.
Thermodynamical variable and equation of state, isothermal and adiabatic processes, refrigerators and heat pumps, phase diagrams, reversible and irreversible processes, ideal gas equation, Carnot engines, efficiency and coefficient performance of heat engines, solar constant and surface temperature of the sun, Newton’s law of cooling, ideas of second law of thermodynamics with practical applications, Wien’s displacement law, Thermal radiation-Stefan-Boltzmann law, thermal equilibrium and temperatures, Dulong and Petit’s law, heat-work and internal energy, specific heat of gases at constant volume and constant pressure, zero law of thermodynamics, thermal expansion-thermometry, specific heat, first law of thermodynamics and exaples.
Oscillations of a spring, kinetic and potential energies, coupled oscillations, restoring force and force constant, simple pendulum-derivation of expression for the period, energy in simple harmonic motion, forced and damped oscillations and resonance (qualitative ideas only) displacement as a function of time and periodic functions, uniform circular motion and simple harmonic motion, periodic motion-period, simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation.
Reflection of waves, Doppler effect of sound with applications, fundamental mode and harmonics, Longitudinal and transverse waves, standing waves in strings and pipes, wave motion, speed of a traveling wave, displacement relation for a progressive wave, principle of superpositional of waves, beats.
Electrical potential energy of a system of point charges, statements of Gauss’s theorem-its application to find field due to an infinitely long straight wire, Electric flux, conductors and insulators-presence of free charges and bound charges, general concept of a capacitor and capacitance, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graff generator, electric dipole in an electrostatistics field, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell, Dielectrics and electric polarization, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, electric potential-physical meaning, a dipole and system of charges, potential difference, equipotential surfaces, electric potential due to a point charge, electric field and its physical significance, electric field due to a dipole and behavior and dipole in a uniform electric field, electric field lines, electric field due to a point charge, electric dipole, frictional electricity, superposition principle and continuous charge distribution, additivity and quantization, properties of electric charges-conservation, forces between multiple electric charges, Coulomb’s law-forces between two point electric charges.
Unit-13: Current Electricity
Temperature dependence of resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, Kirchoff’s laws-illustration by simple applications, meter bridge, comparison of emf of two cells and determination of internal resistance of a cell, thermal effects of current and Joule’s law, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, Primary and secondary cells, thermoelectricity-origin, Peltier effect and Thomson effect, thermo emf, measurement of temperature using a thermo-couple, drift velocity and mobility, their relation with electric current, internal resistance of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Wheatstone bridge and its applications, Potentionmeter-principle and applications to measure potential difference, electric power, chemical effects of current, electro-chemical cells, solid state cells, elementary ideas of Seebeck effect, thermocouple, neutral and inversion temperatures, electric current, electric resistance, limitations of Ohm’s law, classification of materials in terms of conductivity, carbon resistors, combination of resistances-series and parallel, electric current, Ohm’s law, V-I characteristics, electrical resistivity and conductivity, superconductivity (elementary idea), colour code for carbon resistors, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor.
Uint-14: Magnetic Effect of Current and Magnetism
Current loop as a magnetic dipole, torque on a magnetic dipole in a uniform magnetic field, comparison of a bar magnet and solenoid, tangent galvanometer, Para, electromagnets and permanent magnets, magnetic moment, lines of force in magnetic field, earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements, vibration magnetometer, dia and ferromagnetic substances with examples, force on current carrying conductor and torque on current loop in magnetic fields, definition of the ampere, force between two parallel current carrying conductors, moving coil galvanometer and its conversion into ammeter and voltmeter, concept of a magnetic field, Biot-Savart’s law, Ampere’s circuital law and its applications to straight and toroidal solenoids, Oersted’s experiment, magnetic field due to an infinitely long current carrying straight wire and a circular loop, force on moving charge in a uniform magnetic field.
Unit-15: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current
Reactance and impedance, LCR series circuit (Phasor diagram), power in A.C. circuits, electromagnetic induction, induced e.m.f. and current, Eddy currents, alternating current, L.C. oscillations, Resonant circuits and Q-factor, wattles current, Faraday’s law Lenz’s law, A.C. generator and transformer, self and mutual inductance, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage.
Unit-16: Electromagnetic Waves
Electromagnetic spectrum (different regions and applications), properties of electromagnetic waves and Maxwell’s contributions (qualitative ideas), propagation of electromagnetic waves in earth’s atmosphere, Hertz’s experiments.
Blue colour of the sky and appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset, compound microscope, reflection of light, spherical lenses, lens maker’s formula, power of a lens, reflection and dispersion of light due to prism, total internal reflection and its applications, thin lens formula, magnification, astronomical telescope (reflection and 48 KEAM-2008, TVM reflection type) and their magnifying powers, combination of thin lenses in contact, scattering of light,
Wave front and Huygen’s principle, interference-Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, diffraction due to a single slit, difference between interference and diffraction, polarization, Brewster’s law, spectrometer and its use for determination of refractive index of the material of a prism, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts (qualitative idea), coherent sources and sustained interface of light, width of central maximum, resolving power of microscope and telescope, plane polarized light, use of polarized light and polaroids.
Unit-18: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiations
Matter waves-wave nature of particles, Davisson and Germer experiment, photoelectric effect, photo-cell, De Broglie relation, Einstein photoelectric equation-particle nature light.
Unit-19: Atomic Nucleus
Simple explanation of-decay, –decay and –decay, mass defect, nature of nuclear forces, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, mass-energy relation, binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear reactions, nuclear reactors and their uses, elementary ideas of energy production in stars, alpha particle scattering experiment, radio-active decay laws, size of the nucleus-composition of the nucleus-protons and neutrons, Beta and Gamma particle/rays and their properties, Nuclear instability-Radioactivity-Alpha.
Unit-20: Solids and Semiconductor Devices
Diode as a rectifier, photo-diode, junction transistor, transistor as an amplifier ( common emitter configuration) and oscillator, elementary ideas about integrated circuits, different between methods, solar cell, zener diode as a voltage regulator, characteristics of a transistor, logic gates (NOT, OR, NOR, AND, NAND), energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only) insulators and semi-conductors using band theory, p-n junction, intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductors, semi-conductor diode-characteristics forward and reverse bias.
Unit-21: Principles of Communications
Fax and modem, basic principles space communications-Ground wave, satellite communications, elementary idea of analog and digital communication, line communications-wire transmission lines, telephone links, amplitude, space wave and sky wave propagation, ideas of remote sensing, coaxial cables and optical fibres, need for modulation, optical fibre communications (qualitative ideas), data transmission and retrieval, frequency and pulse modulation,