KEAM Syllabus for Chemistry
Unit-1: Basic Concepts and Atomic Structure
Gay-Lussac’s law of combining volumes, Mole concept, molecular and molar masses, balancing and calculation based on chemical equations, Delton’s atomic theory, atomic, chemical equations, laws of chemical combination: law of definite proportion, law of conservation of mass, law of multiple proportions.
Atomic Structure: Rutherford model of atom, Uncertainty principle, atomic orbitals and their shapes (d, s and p orbitals only), electronic configurations of elements, Hund’s rule, fundamental particles, nature of electromagnetic radiation, Aufbau principle, wave function (mention only), quantum numbers, Pauli’s exclusion principle, emission spectrum of hydrogen atom, drawbacks of Bohr model, de Broglie relation, Bohr model of hydrogen atom, dual nature of matter and radiation.
Unit-2: Bonding and Molecular Structure
Resonance, molecular orbital diagrams of homodiatomic molecules, hydrogen bond, metallic bond, molecular orbital method, bond strength and magnetic behaviour, coordinate bond, Kossel and Lewis approach of bonding, polarity of covalent bond, lattice energy, covalent bond, concept of orbital overlap, lonic bond, Born-Haber cycle, VSEPR theory and geometry of molecules, valence bond theory and hybridization (sp2, sp, sp3, dsp2, sp3d2 and d2sp3), Lewis structure of covalent bond.
Unit-3: States of Matter
Gaseous State: Graham’s law of diffusion, ideal gas equation, Dalton’s law of partial pressure, Kinetic theory of gases, van der Waals equation, Joule-Thomson effect, Boyle’s law, Avogadro’s hypothesis, absolute scale of temperature, gas constant and its values, aqueous tension, deviation of real gases from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
Liquid State: vapour pressure and boiling point, viscosity, properties of liquids, surface tension.
Solid State: space lattice and unit cells, x-ray studies of crystals, close packing, structure of simple ionic compounds of AB and AB2 types, point defects (Frenkel and Schottky), conductors, piezoelectric and pyroelectric crystals, diamagnetic, ferromagnetic, types of solids (ionic, molecular and covalent), cubic crystal systems, the Bragg equation, different voids (octahedral and tetrahedral only), density calculation, electrical properties of solids semiconductors and insulators, magnetic properties of solids, paramagnetic, antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic substances.
Unit-4: Periodic Properties of Elements and Hydrogen
Electronic configurations of elements and their position in the periodic table, periodic properties: electron affinity, valence and electronegativity, lonization energy, atomic radii, classification of elements: atomic number and modern periodic law, long form of periodic table, Mendeleev’s periodic table.
Hydrogen: Isolation, reactions and uses, preparation (including commercial), position in the periodic table, isotopes of hydrogen, occurrence. Hydrides: Interstitial hydrides and saline, molecular. Water: Chemical and physical properties of water, structure of water molecule and its aggregates, hard and soft water, preparation and uses of heavy water: liquid hydrogen as fuel, removal of hardness.
Unit-5: S-Block Elements and Principles of Metallurgy
Oxides, hydrogen, electrode potential and reaction with oxygen, hydroxides and halides, halogens and liquid ammonia, occurrence, trends in atomic and physical properties (ionization energy, ionic radii and atomic radii), electronic configuration.
Alkaline earth metals: Hydrogen and halogens, halides and sulphides, occurrence, trends in atomic and properties, oxides, electronic configuration, electrode potential and reactions with oxygen, hydroxides.
Plaster of Paris and MgSO4, lime stone and cement, anomalous properties of lithium and beryllium, preparation and properties of CaO, Ca(OH)2, compounds of s-block elements: large scale preparation of NaOH and Na2CO3 and their properties and uses, industrial uses of lime.
Principles of metallurgy: General principles of extraction of metals form ore, heat treatment and uses of steel, occurrence of metals, different types of steel, concentration of ores, refining of metals, manufacture of steel, copper and iron,, aluminium, extraction of sodium.
Unit-6: P-Block Elements
General characteristics of p-block elements: trends in chemical reactivity of groups 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 elements, oxidation states, physical and atomic properties.
Boron: Borax and boric acid, uses of boron and its compounds, occurrence, structure of diborane, isolation, Boron hydrides. Carbon: Carbides, allotropes, halides and sulphide, properties. Nitrogen: Fixation of nitrogen, isolation, terrestrial abundance and distribution properties and chemical reactivity. Ammonia: properties and uses, Haber process of manufacture. Nitric acid: Ostwald process of manufacture and important uses. Oxides: basic and amphoteric oxides, properties and uses of zone and hydrogen peroxide, acidic, structure, preparation. Oxygen: properties and chemical reactivity, isolation, Terrestrial abundance. Oxides of nitrogen: structure and preparation (skeletal only).
Hydrogen Sulphide: properties and uses in qualitative analysis. Sulpher: oxides and halides, allotropes, production. Silica: structure of silicates, different forms and uses. Sulfuric acid: properties and uses, manufacture, preparation and properties of Na2s2O3. Interhaloen compounds, comparison of oxides, preparation and properties of bleaching power, hydrides, halides and hydrides of group 17 elements, oxides and oxyacids of chlorine. Phosphorus: allotropes and phosphine, production, comparison of halides, preparation and structures of PCl3, P4O6, P4O10, PC15, hydrides and oxides of group 15 elements, oxyacids of phosphorus.
Group 18 elements: atomic and physical properties, isolation, occurrence, uses. Compounds of xenon: preparation of fluorides and oxides and their reactions with water.
Unit-7: F-Block and D-Block Elements
F-Block Elements: Lanthanides: Lanthanide contraction, occurrence, uses, electronic configuration and oxidation states. Actinides: occurrence, electronic configuration and comparison with lanthanides.
D-Block Elements: coloured ions, magnetic properties, preparation and properties of KMO4, AgNO3, K2Cr207, CuSO4.5gH20 and halides of silver and mercury, electronic configuration and general characteristics, ionization energy, oxidation states, catalytic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds and alloys, photography, metallic properties, electrode potential, ionic radii.
Unit-8: Nuclear Chemistry
Natural radioactivity: Group displacement law, nuclear reactions, rate of radioactive disintegration and half life, properties of alpha, nuclear stability and binding energy, radioactive disintegration series, beta and gamma radiations. Nuclear radioactivity: nuclear energy, nuclear reactors, radiochemical dating, transmutation of elements, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, radio isotopes and their uses, synthetic elements.
System and surrounding: Reversible and irreversible processes, types of processes, Zeroth law, types of systems, state of functions and path functions, intensive and extensive properties. First law of thermodynamics: application of first law of thermodynamics, internal energy and enthalpy, enthalpy changes during phase transition, standard enthalpy of formation, enthalpy changes in chemical reactions, Hess’s law of constant heat summation and numerical problems. Second law of thermodynamics: free energy change and chemical equilibrium, entropy and Gibbs free energy, criteria for spontaneity.
Unit-10: Chemical Equilibrium
Chemical and Physical equilibria: General characteristics of equilibria involving physical processes, equilibria involving physical changes (liquid gas, dissolution of gases in liquids and dissolution of solids in liquids, solid-liquid), dynamic nature of equilibrium. Equilibria involving chemical system: magnitude of equilibrium constant, effect of changing conditions of systems at equilibrium ( pressure and temperature, changes of concentration), lonization of weak and strong electrolytes, the Le Chatelier principle and its application, ionic equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, numerical problems, effect of catalyst, relationship between Kc and Kp. Concepts of acids and bases: Acid-base equilibrium, pH scale, theory of acid-base indicators, common ion effect, those of Arrhenius, Lewis and Bronsted-Lowry, lonization of water, salt hydrolysis, solubility product, Buffer solution and buffer action.
Types of solutions: Solubility of gases and solids, deviation from Raoult’s law, different concentration terms (molarity, mass percentage and mole fraction, molarity, normality), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s law. Colligative properties: elevation in boiling point, ideal and non-ideal solutions, abnormal molecular mass, lowering of vapour pressure, depression in freezing point and osmotic pressure, the van’t Hoff factor and related numerical problems, determination of molecular mass.
Unit-12: Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry
Oxidation and reduction: oxidation number, electron transfer concept. Balancing equations of redox reactions: ion electron method and oxidation method (half reaction method). Faraday’s law of electrolysis: electrolytic conduction, molar conductance , electrode potential and electromotive force (e.m.f.), Galvanic and electrolytic cells, the Nernst equation, fuel cell (H2-O2 only), primary and secondary cells, quantitative aspects, conductance, Kohlrausch’s law and its applications, reference electrode (SHE only), Daniel cell, free energy and e.m.f. Corrosion and its prevention: methods of prevention of corrosion, cathodic and galvanization protection, electrochemical theory of rusting of iron.
Unit-13: Chemical Kinetics
Units of rate constant, temperature dependence of rate constant, activation energy and related numerical problems, rate of reaction, rate expressions, order and molecularity, half life period, arrthenius equation, elementary and complex reactions with examples, average and instantaneous rates, rate constant, integrated rate law expressions for zero and first order reactions and their derivations, rate law.
Unit-14: Surface Chemistry
Colloids: dispersed phase and dispersion medium, colloids and suspensions. Types of colloids: lyophilic, macromolecular and associated colloids, properties and protection of colloids, Hardy Schulze rule, lyophobic, multimolecular, preparation, gold number, emulsions. Adsorption: factors effecting adsorption, freundlisch adsorption isotherm, catalysis, zeolites, physical and chemical adsorption, effect of pressure, Langmuir adsorption isotherm, enzymes.
Unit-15: Coordination Compounds and Organometallics
Valence bond approach, magnetic properties of octahedral, introduction to crystal field theory, importance of coordination compounds in qualitative analysis and biological systems like hemoglobin and vitamin B12 (structures not included), chlorophyll, hybridization and geometry, tetrahedral and square planer complexes, splitting of d orbital in octahedral and tetrahedral fields (qualitative only), ligand, IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds, geometrical, bonding in coordination compounds, coordination number, isomerism in coordination compounds optical and structural isomerism, Werner’s coordination theory.
Unit-16: Basic Principles, Purification and Characterization of Organic Compounds
Quantitative analysis: Estimation of carbon, sulphur, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus and halogens (principles only), and related problems of numerical. Qualitative analysis: detection of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and halogen. Determination of molecular mass: chloroplatinate salt method and silver method, calculation of molecular and empirical formulae. Purification of carbon compounds: crystallization, distillation, filtration, sublimation, differential extraction and chromatography (paper and column only). Distinction between organic and inorganic compounds, catenation, tetra valence of carbon, hybridization (sp, sp2 and sp3), general introduction to naming of organic compounds, shapes of simple molecules, trivial names and IUPAC nomenclature, structural isomerism, illustration with examples, examples of functional groups containing hydrogen, sulphur, oxygen and halogens.
Alkenes and alkynes: Geometrical isomerism in alkenes, general methods of preparation, Markownikoff’s rule, acidic character of alkynes, nomenclature, stability of alkenes, chemical and physical properties, peroxide effect, polymerization reactions of dienes. Alkanes and cycloalknes: butane and cyclohexane, nomenclature and conformation of ethane, 3D structure and 2D projections (Newman and Sawhorse), propane.
Unit-18: Organic Reaction Mechanism
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond: Electrophiles, carbocations and carbanions, inductive, resonance and hyperconjugation effects, free radicals, fission of a covalent bond, nucleophiles, electromeric. Common types of organic reactions: addition, illustrations with examples, concept of delocalization of electrons, mechanism of electrophilic substitution reactions, substitution, elimination and rearrangement reactions, mechanism of electrophilic addition reactions in alkenes, directive influence of substituents and their effect on reactivity (in benzene ring only), addition reactions in dienes (1,2 and 1,4-additions), concept of delocalization of electrons.
Stereoisomerism: Elements of symmetry, Enantiomers, Racemiation, Diastereo isomers, Resolution, compounds containing one chiral center, Racemic form, compounds containing two chiral centers, Meso form, importance of stereochemistry, geometrical isomerism and optical isomerism, chirality and chiral objects, configuration and Fischer projections, specific rotation, chiral molecules, asymmetric carbon.
Unit-20: Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Halogens
Polyhalogen compounds: Uses of some commercially important compounds (iodoform, chloroform, BHE, DDT and freon), preparation and properties of chloroform and iodoform. Haloalkanes and haloarenes: Physical properties, chemical properties and uses of chloromethane and chlorobenzene, nature of C-X bond in haloalkanes and haloarenes, nomenclature and general methods of preparation.
Unit-21: Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Oxygen
Alcohols: Important methods of preparation (form aldehydes, alkyl halides, ketones and hydration of alkenes), physical and chemical properties, formation of alkenes, reactions with PX3, PX5, SOCI2. Oxidation of alcohols, nomenclature, manufacture of ethanol form molasses and starch, reactions with alkali metals and acids, ethers and esters, dehydrogenation.
Phenols: Chemical and Physical properties of phenol, action of phenol with FeCl3, nitration and sulphonation of phenol, acidity of phenol, Bromination, preparation of phenol (form sodium benzenesulphonate, chlorobenzene and benzene Diazoniumchloride) Nomenclature.
Ethers: Williamson’s synthesis, nomenclature, methods of preparation (form alcohol and alkyl halides), action with Hl, HF and H2SO4, formation of peroxides,
Some commercially important compounds: Ascending and descending in alcohol series, methanol, glycol and glycol, ethanol (fermentation).
Aldehydes and Ketones: Formation of paraldehyde and metaldehyde, Grignard reagent, Oxidation reactions with Tollen’s reagent and Fehling’s solution, reduction with LiAlH4, Wolff-Kischner reduction, Cannizzaro reaction, addition of NaHSO3, NH3 and its derivatives, HCN and alcohols, oxidation of ketones, Clemmensen reduction, aldol condensation, nomenclature, methods of preparation (from acid, alcohol, chlorides, hydration of alkynes and ozonolysis of alkenes), general properties (chemical and physical) of aldehydes and keones, electronic structure of carbonyl group, Friedel-Crafts acylation for acetophenone.
Carboxylic acid: Electronic structure of –COOH, physical properties, chemical reactions, nomenclature, methods of preparation (from alcohols, ketones, aldyehydes, hydrolysis of cyanide and alkyl benzenes.), effects of substituents on acid strength.
Derivatives of carboxylic acids: Ester, nomenclature, acid chlorides, important methods of preparation, amides and anhydrides.
Unit-22: Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Nitrogen
Nitrocompounds: Electronic structure of nitro group, nomenclature, preparation and properties. Amines: Primary, nomenclature, secondary and tertiary amines, physical properties, chemical reaction, secondary and tertiary amines, diazonium salts, basic nature, preparation and chemical reactions of benzene diazoniumchloride in synthetic organic chemistry, separation of primary and secondary and tertiary amines.
Unit-23: Polymers and Biomolcules
Polymers: Biodegradable polymers, condensation polymers, natural rubber and vulcanization, condensation and addition polymerization, biopolymers, synthetic rubbers, copolymerization, classification. Some commercially important rubbers: Nylon-66, nylon-6 and Bakelite, Terylene, BUNA-N, BUNA-S, PAN, PVC, polythene, glyptal, neoprene, Teflon, polystyrene.
Biomolecules: Classification of carbohydrates, the cell energy cycle, properties and structure of glucose. Reducing and non-reducing sugars: maltose and lactose (structure not included), properties of sucrose. Proteins: Protein synthesis, replication, primary structure of DNA, RNA and DNA and their chemical composition, nucleic acid, enzymes, secondary and tertiary structures of protein, polypeptides, zwitterions, genetic code, amino acid, translation and transcription, double helix, types of nucleic acids, denaturation of proteins, primary, peptide bond. Polysaccharides: Properties of cellulose and starch. Lipids: Functions and structure features in biosynthesis, classification. Hormones: Functions and structural features in biosystems, classification. Vitamins: Functions and classification in biosystems.
Unit-24: Environmental Chemistry and Chemistry in Every Day Life
Global warming, and green house effect, soil, industrial air pollution, air and water pollutions, importance of green chemistry, ozone layer, acid rain, Smog, methyl orange and alizarin, classification of dyes with examples, antiseptics, analgesics, indigo, chemical in health care and medicine, tranquillizers, antacids, and dyes. Chemical in cosmetics: Deodorants and talc powder, creams, perfumes. Advanced materials: Pheromones, edible colours and antioxidants, preservatives, carbon fiber, ceramics, sx attractants, insect repellents, artificial sweetening agents, chemical in food. Rocket propellants: chemicals used and characteristics.