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KEAM Syllabus for Biology

Unit-1: Living World

Biology and its Branches: Role of Biology in dispelling myth and misbelieves, scientific methods in biology, career options and scope in biology, characters of living organisms (adaptation, homeostasis, metabolism, survival and death, reproduction and growth, elementary ideas of organization, energy transfer devices of life.), relationship with other sciences, historical breakthrough (modern, medieval and ancient).

Unit-2: Diversity of Plant Life

Systems of classification: i) two kingdom (description with emphasis on demerits and criteria), ii) five kingdom (description with emphasis on demerits, merits and criteria), systems/taxonomy with its importance, natural and phyogenetic types of classifications with examples, binomial nomenclature (merits and guidelines), descriptive features of kingdoms: Fungi, monera, plantae and animalia, protista. Botanical gardens and herbaria, status of virus, artificial, biosystematics.

Plant groups: Thallophyta, algae: Chlorophyta and phaeophyta with examples, salient, comparative features of rhodophyta. Fungi: Prominent features of ascomycetes, phycomycetes, myxomycetes and basidiomycetes with examples. Lichens: common features with examples. Bryophyte: common features with special mention on aquatic to terrestrial evolution, Musci and alternation of generations of hepaticae with exaples. Pteridophytes: common features with examples. Gymnosperms: common features with examples. Angiosperms: distinctive features of angiosperms with examples.

Morphology of angiosperms: morphological characters of flower, morphological structure of stem root and leaf and their functional and structural modification with examples, morphological differentiation of different types of seeds and fruits with examples, special types (verticillaster, hypanthodium, cyathium). Inflorescence: cymose, racemose (different sub-types with examples). Taxonomy of angiosperms, description of taxonomical types.

Plant anatomy: Tissue: Tissue systems (ground and vascular, epidermal), normal secondary growth of stem and root, Meristematic (categorization based on position, origin and plane of division), anatomy of leaf of monocot and dicot, anatomy of root and stem (primary structure) of monocot and dicot, permanent (complex and simple types).

Unit-3: Cell and Cell Division

Cell theory, unicellularity and multicellularity, prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, cell as a basic unit of life. Tools and techniques: electron microscope and cell fractionation (electrophoresis, chromatography and centrifugation), different types of optical microscope. Ultra structure: Description of cell organelles and their functions (centriole, cytoskeletal structures, golgi bodies, plastids, nucleus, ribosomes, cilia and flagella, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes), prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell wall, cell, cell membrane (fluid mosaic model), cellular movements (endocytosis and exocytosis), membrane transport, unit membrane concept.

Macromolecules of cell: Enzymes (chemical nature and mechanism of action, properties), hormones and steroids, inorganic and organic materials (nucleotides, amino acids, carbohydrates, water, nucleic acids DNA and RNA, proteins, lipids, mineral ions, salt), vitamins. Cell cycle: Differences in animal and plant cell divisions, description of amitosis, karyotype analysis, cell division, mitosis and meiosis and their significance.

Unit-4: Physiology of Plants

Cell as a Physiological Unit: Absorption and movement-active (non-osmotic and osmotic) and passive, composition of protoplasm, water relations (diffusion, plasmolysis, water potential, imbibition, osmosis, permeability). Transpiration: mechanism of opening and closing of stomata (potassium ion theory) Translocation of water: Transpiration pull, theories-root pressures. Significance of transpiration, factors affecting rate of transpiration, guttation, factors affecting stomatal movement. Mineral Nutrition: Theories of translocation-passive (carrier concept), passive (Donnanís equilibrium, ion exchange, diffusion, mass flow), nitrogen metabolism: mechanism, nitrogen cycle, synthesis of amino acids (amides, reductive amination, transamination), biological nitrogen fixation, deficiency symptoms of elements, function of minerals. Photosynthesis: Mode of nutrition: Insectivorous plants, heterotrophic, chemosynthesis, autotrophic, parasitic and saprophytic, photosynthetic apparatus, absorption spectra and action spectra, photo phosphorylation (non-cyclic and cyclic electron transport system), significance, biosynthetic phase (CAM pathways C3 and C4), functional aspects of chlorophyll structure. Pentose phosphate pathway: Anaerobic respiration, respiratory quotient, factorís affecting respiration, compensation point, fermentation. Mechanism: Oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport system, Glycolysis, Krebís cycle. Preparation: Site of respiration, significance.

Unit-5: Development, Growth and Reproduction

Modes of reproduction in flowering plants Sexual reproduction: Embryo development, double fertilization, development of female and male gametophytes, parthenocarpy and parthenogenesis, incompatibility, pollination types and factors, seed and fruit development. Vegetative propagation (artificial and natural), significance, micro-propagation. Plant growth Growth regulators: gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, cytokines, abscisic acid (ABA) and their role. Growth rate, measurement of growth, growth curve, characteristic features. Seed germination: Factors and mechanism affecting germination, types, role of growth regulators in seed. Plant movements: Process of flowering, geotropism, vernalisation and photoperiodism, turgor growth movements (nutation, nasitc and tropic), hydrotropism, phototropism. Abscission, dormancy, stress factors (water and salt), senescence.

Unit-6: Ecology and Environment

Organism and their environment: Factors: Acclimatization, abiotic (soil, light, air, water and temperature), ecological adaptation to different environments in plants, range of tolerance. Ecological interactions: parasitism, mutualism, competition and predation, symbiosis, commensalisms, mutualism. Levels of organization: Community, biosphere and ecosystem, species, population. Major biomes: Deserts, grassland and forest. Ecosystem: Ecological efficiencies, productivity, function and structure with respect to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems (grassland and pond), decomposition and nutrient cycling (phosphorus and nitrogen cycle), energy flow.Principal natural resources: Forest and wild life resource, marine, forest, water, misuse and use of natural resources, mineral, energy, land, soil. Ecological succession: Mechanism and types. Natural resources: Types: Exhaustible (non-renewable and renewable), inexhaustible. Environmental pollution: Pollution due to radioactive substances, control and effect of radiation pollution, disposal of nuclear wastes, sources of water, air, noise and soil pollution, major pollutions in big cities in the country and their effects and method of control. Global environmental changes: Sea level and rise, green house gases, global warming, ozone layer depletion.

Unit-7: Applications of Biology

Genetically modified food, biotechnology and sustainable agriculture, bio-piracy, food production, bio-pesticides, bio-fertilizers, breeding, animal and crop diseases, improved varieties, plant tissue culture and its application, bio-war, bio-patent.

Unit-8: Origin and Evolution of Life:

  • Origin of Earth
  • Origin of Life
  • Primary abiogenesis
  • Theories of Evolution
  • Darwinís Theory of Evolution
  • Mutation Theory of de Vries
  • Evidence of Evolution
  • Variation
  • Population Genetics and Evolution
  • Genetic Basis of Adaptation
  • Speciation
  • Isolation

Unit-9: Classification of Animals

  • Salient Features of Different Phyla with Examples

Unit-10: Animal Morphology

  • Internal and External Morphology

Unit-11: Animal Tissues

  • Definition

Unit-12: Genetics:

  • Heredity and Variation
  • Chromosomes
  • Mutation
  • Human Genetics
  • Nature of Genetic Material
  • DNA and Gene 6.1 DNA Replication

Unit-13: Applied Genetics

  • Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Cloning
  • Genomics

Unit-14: Physiology of Animals

  • Nutrition
  • Digestion
  • Respiration
  • Circulation
  • Excretion
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Muscles
  • Nervous Co-ordination
  • Hormones

Unit-15: Reproduction and Development in Animals

  • Reproduction

Unit-16: Biodiversity and Conservation

  • Biotic Resources
  • Biodiversity
  • Endangered Species
  • Conservation of Biodiversity

Unit-17: Biology in Human Welfare

  • Population
  • Population Growth
  • Common Problems of adolescence
  • Population as a Resource
  • Organ Transplantation
  • Modern Techniques in Disease Diagnosis
  • Biotechnology
  • Interferon
  • Immuno Modulations

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