# GATE Syllabus for Agriculture Engineering

Engineering Mathematics

Vector Calculus: Divergence and curl, gradient, line, surface and volume integrals, stokes, gauss and Green's theorems.

Differential Equations: Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients, Linear and non-linear first order ODEs, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, Laplace transforms, PDEs - Laplace, heat and wave equations.

Linear Algebra: Systems of linear equations, Matrices and Determinants, Eigen values and eigen vectors.

Calculus: Continuity and differentiability, limit, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, sequences and series, Fourier series, test for convergence.

Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations, integration of trapezoidal and Simpson's rule, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Probability and Statistics: Median, mean, mode and standard deviation, random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, correlation and regression analysis.

Farm Machinery and Power

Soil tillage: Hitch systems and hitching of tillage implements, forces acting on a tillage tool, mechanics of animal traction, functional requirements, principles of working, operation, construction and of manual, animal and power operated equipment for sowing, tillage, planting, fertilizer application, inter-cultivation, mowing , spraying, chaff cutting, harvesting, threshing and transport, testing of agricultural equipment and machinery, cost analysis of implements and tractors, calculation of performance parameters -field capacity, efficiency, application rate and losses.

Sources of power on the farm: Mechanical, human, animal, electrical, wind, solar and biomass, bio-fuels, design and selection of machine elements - gears, pulleys, sprockets chainsand belts, overload safety devices used in farm machinery, measurement of force, speed, torque, displacement and acceleration on machine elements.

Tractors and power tillers: Selection, maintenance, type and repair, tractor clutches and brakes, power transmission systems - gear trains, differential, final drives and power take-off, mechanics of tractor chassis, traction theory, three point hitches- free link and restrained link operations, mechanical steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors, tractor tests and performance, human engineering and safety in tractor design.

Thermodynamic principles of I.C. engines: Lubricants and their properties, I.C. engine cycles, engine components, fuels and combustion, I.C. engine systems - fuel, cooling, lubrication, electrical, ignition, exhaust and intake selection, operation, maintenance and repair of I.C. engines, calculation of torque, power, fuel consumption, heat load and power losses, power efficiencies and measurement.

Water and Soil Conservation Engineering

Hydrological cycle: measurement of angles and bearings, types of leveling, plane table surveying, instruments for leveling and surveying, contouring, computation of each work, methods of traversing, chain surveying, measurement of area and distance, hydrological reservoir and channel routing, hydrograph analysis, unit hydrograph theory and application, runoff, abstraction from precipitation, analysis of precipitation data, meteorological parameters and their measurement.

Real and ideal fluids: flow through notches and orifices, flow in open channels, Moody’s diagram, Hazen-Williams and Darcy-Weisbach equations, laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, Bernoulli’s theorem, curved surface and hydrostatic forces on plane, hydrostatic pressure and its measurement, properties of fluids.

Engineering properties of soils: Active and passive earth pressure, shear strength, Mohr’s circle of stress, stability of slopes, fundamental definitions and relationship, permeability and seepage analysis.

Soil-water –plant relationship: Irrigation water and infiltration, surface, drip method and sprinkler of irrigation, evaluation and design of irrigation methods, measurement and soil moisture, design of irrigation channels, irrigation efficiencies, water requirement of crops, irrigation scheduling, consumptive use and evaportranspiration.

Mechanics of soil erosion: Gully control structures, earthen damp, drop, drop inlet and chute spillways, water harvesting structures, watershed management, vegetative waterways, bunds and terraces, soil erosion types, wind and water erosion, engineering and biological measures to control erosion, soil loss estimation, factors affecting erosion.

Drainage coefficient: Salinity control and leaching requirement, drainage water quality and irrigation, design and lay-out of sub-surface and surface drainage systems, planning.

Classification of pumps: pump selection and installation, pump characteristics.

Groundwater: Well hydraulics, groundwater recharge, occurrence confined and unconfined aquifers. Agricultural processing and food engineering

Mechanics and energy requirement in size reduction of granular solids: Grading and cleaning, effectiveness of grain cleaners, screw and belt conveying, fluidization of granular solid-pneumatic, particle size analysis for comminuted solids, size separation by screening.

Steady state heat transfer in conduction: working principles of heat exchangers, simultaneous mass and heat transfer in agricultural processing operations, convective and diffusive mass transfer, radiation and convection, boiling heat and condensation transfer, transient heat transfer in simple geometry.

Modified and controlled atmosphere storage: Godowns, bins and grain silos, perishable food storage.

Hydrothermal treatment: Spices, vegetables, and fruits, by-product utilization from processing industries, drying and milling of cereals, pulses and oilseeds, processing of seeds.

Material and energy balances in food processing systems: Preservation of food by freezing and cooling, refrigeration and cold storage basic and applications, drying and concentration of liquid foods-evaporators, drum, tray and spray dryers, psychrometry-properties of air-vapour mixture, water activity, centrifugal separation of solids, sorption and desorption isotherms, liquids and gases, kinetics of microbial death, pasteurization and sterilization of liquid foods.

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