BITSAT Syllabus for Chemistry
1. States of Matter
- 1. Measurement: Dimensional analysis, significant figures, physical quantities and SI units, precision.
- 2. Chemical reactions: Daltonís atomic theory, atomic, percentage and composition and molecular formula, laws of chemical combination, mole concept, molecular and molar masses, balanced chemical equations and stoichiometry
- 3. Gaseous state: Deviation from ideal behaviour-liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, van der Waals equation, kinetic theory-average, Maxwell distribution of velocities, root mean square and most probable velocities and relation to temperature, diffustion.
- 4. Liquid state: Surface tension, vapour pressure, viscosity.
- 5. Solid state: Imperfections-point defects, non-stoichiometric crystals, magnetic and dielectic properties, electrical, Amorphous solids-qualitative description, space lattices and crystal systems, classification, unit cell-close packing, cubic and hexagonal systems, crystal structures: simple AB and AB2 type ionic crystals, metals, covalent crystals-diamond and graphite.
2. Atomic Structure
- 1. Introduction: Rutherfordís picture of atom, subatomic particles, hydrogen atom spectrum and Bohr model
- 2. Quantum mechanics: Atomic orbitals and their shapes, wave-particle duality-de Brogile relation, spin quantum number, uncertainty principle, hydrogen atom: wave functions and quantum numbers.
- 3. Many electron atoms: Aufbau principle and the electronic configuration of atoms, Pauli Exclusion Principle, Hundís rule.
- 4. Periodicity: The modern periodic table and periodic law, periodic trends: atomic and ionic radii, valency, ionization energy and electron affinity.
- 5. Nucleus: Nuclear reactions, natural and artificial radioactivity, artificial transmutation of elements.
3. Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
- 1. Ionic Bond: Lattice energy and Born-Haber cycle
- 2. Molecular Structure: VSEPR model and molecular shapes, Lewis picture and resonance structures
- 3. Covalent Bond: Molecular orbital theory-methodology, bond order, orbital energy level diagram, magnetic properties for homonuclear diatomic species, valence bond theory-orbital overlap, resonance, directionality of bonds and hybridistaion.
- 4. Metallic bond: Qualitative description.
- 5. Intermolecular Forces: Dipole moments, polarity, hydrogen bond
- 1. Basic Concepts: State functions, zeroth law and temperature, system and surroundings, intensive and extensive properties.
- 2. First Law of Thermodynamics: Internal energy, heat capacities, phase transformation, electron gain, Hessís law, work, heat enthalpy, enthalpies of formation, ionization, thermochemistry.
- 3. Second and Third Law: Gibbs free energy related to spontaneity and non-mechanical work, free energy change and chemical equilibrium, standard free energies of formation, third law and absolute entropies, entropy, spontaneous and reversible processes.
5. Physical and Chemical Equilibria
- 1. Concentration Units: Molarity, mole fraction and molality
- 2. Solutions: Depression in freezing point, osmotic pressure, elevation in boiling point, determination of molecular mass, solubility of solids and gases in liquids, Raoultís law, vapour pressure, relative lowering of vapour pressure.
- 3. Physical Equilibrium: Adsorption, Longmuir isotherm, equilibria involving physical changes (liquid-gas, solid-liquid, solid-gas).
- 4. Chemical Equilibria: Le-Chatelierís principle, equilibrium constants (KC, KP)
- 5. Ionic Equilibria: Ionization of water, buffer solutions, ph, acid-base titrations, solubility product of sparingly soluble salts, hydrolysis, common Ion effect, strong and weak electrolytes, bases and acids (Lewis, Bronsted, Arrhenius, Lowry).
- 6. Factors Affecting Equilibria: Temperature, catalysts, concentration, pressure, significance of DGO and DG in chemical equilibria.
- 1. Redox Reactions: Oxidation number, electrochemical cells and cell reactions, EMF of Galvanic cells, Gibbs energy change and cell potential, secondary cells, corrosion and its prevention, oxidation-reduction reactions (electron transfer concept), balancing of redox reactions, electro potentials, Nernst equation, concentration cells, fuel cells.
- 2. Electrolytic Conduction: Specific, Kolhrauschís law and its application, electrode potential and electrolysis, conductance, equivalent and molar conductivities, Faradayís laws of electrolysis, commercial production of the chemicals.
7. Chemical Kinetics
- 1. Aspects of Kinetics: Rate constant, integrated rate expressions for zero and first order reactions, determination of rate constant and order of reaction, rate and rate expression of a reaction, order of reaction, half-life
- 2. Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions: Activation energy, surface catalysis, zeolites, effect of light, temperature dependence of rate constant, catalysis, enzymes, factors affecting rate of collisions between molecules.
- 3. Mechanism of Reaction: Complex reactions, photochemical reactions, elementary reactions, concept of fast reactions, reaction involving two/three steps only.
- 4. Radioactive isotopes: Radiochemical dating, half-life period
8. Hydrogen and S-block Elements
- 1. Hydrogen: Elements: Occurrence, unique position in periodic table, isotopes, Dihydrogen: Properties, molecular, interstitial hydrides, preparation, reactions and uses, saline, Water: Structure and aggregation of water molecules, heavy water, properties, hydrogen peroxide, hard and soft water.
- 2. S-block Elements: Diagonal relationships, anomalous properties of the first elements in each group, abundance and occurrence.
- 3. Alkali Metals: Sodium, lithium and potassium: Extraction, electrode potentials, hydrogen, basic nature of oxides and hydroxides, properties and uses of compounds, occurrence, reactivity, reactions with oxygen, halogens and liquid ammonia, halides.
- 4. Alkaline Earth Metals: Calcium and Magnesium: Extraction, reactions with non-metals, properties and uses of important compounds lime and limestone, plaster of Paris, cement, occurrence, reactivity and electrode potentials, solubility and thermal stability of oxo salts.
9. P-d-and f-block elements
- 1. General: Trends in chemical reactivity of elements of a group, abundance, extraction and refining of metals, distribution, isolation and uses of elements, physical and chemical properties.
- 2. Group 13 Elements: Properties and uses of borax, boron hydrides and halides, boron, reaction of aluminum with acids and alkalis
- 3. Group 14 elements: Carbon: Uses, oxides, carbides, allotropes (fullerenes, graphite, diamond), halides and sulphides, Silicon: silicates, silica, silicones, tin and lead: halides and oxides, extraction
- 4. Group 15 elements: Ammonia: Properties and reactions, Ostwaldís process of nitric acid production, production of phosphorus, preparation, oxides, Haberís process, oxides of nitrogen and their structures, fertilizers-NPK type, allotropes of phosphorus, structure and properties of hydrides, oxoacids and halides of phosphorus, dinitrogen, industrial and biological nitrogen fixation, reactivity and uses of nitrogen and its compounds.
- 5. Group 16 Elements: Acidic, preparation, allotropes of sulphur, structure and properties of oxides, hydrides and halides of sulphur, isolation and chemical reactivity of dioxygen, basic and amphoteric oxides, structure and properties of ozone, production of sulphur and sulphuric acid, oxoacids.
6. Group 17 and group 18 elements: Oxides, inter halogen compounds, preparation, oxides and oxoacids, structure and properties of hydrides, oxoacids of chlorine, bleaching powder, structure and reactions of xenon fluorides.
- 7. d-block Elements: Metallic character, ionic radii, magnetic properties, occurrence and extraction of iron, silver, mercury, copper and zinc, steel and some important alloys, preparation and properties, silver nitrate and silver halides, general trends in the chemistry of first row transition elements, oxidation state, catalytic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, mercury halides.
- 8. f-block Elements: Oxidation states and chemical reactivity of lanthanide compounds, lanthanides and actinides, comparison of lanthanides and actinides.
- 9. Co-ordination Compounds: Ligands, IUPAC nomenclature, Bonding: Valence-bond approach, stability constants, colour and magnetic properties, crystal field theory (qualitative), shapes, isomerism including stereoisomerisms, coordination number, Wernerís coordination theory, application and importance of coordination compounds (in extraction of metals, qualitative analysis and biological systems.)