


UPSC  Syllabus  Physics   

Examination Syllabus  Subject : Physics
 Mechanics and Waves
Dimensional analysis. Newton's laws of motion and applications, variable mass systems, projectiles. Rotational dynamicskinetic energy, angular momentum, theorems of moment of intertia and calculations in simple cases. Conservative forces, frictional forces. Gravitaional potential and intensity due to spherical objects. Central forces, Kepler's problem, escape velocity and artificial satellites (including GPS). Streamline motion, viscosity, Poiseuille's equation. Applications of Bernoulli's equation and Stokes' law.
Special relativity and Lorentz transformationlength contraction, time dilation, massenergy relation.
Simple harmonic motion, Lissajous figures. Damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance. Beats, Phase and group velocities. Stationary waves, vibration of strings and air columns, longitudinal waves in solids. Doppler effect. Ultrasonics and applications.
 Geometrical and Physical Optics.
Laws of reflection and refraction from Fermat's principle. Matrix method in paraxial optics thin lens formula, nodal planes, system of two thin lenses. Chromatic and spherical aberrations. Simple optical instrumentsmagnifier, eyepieces, telescopes and microscopes.
Huygens' principlereflection and refraction of waves. Interference of lightYoung's experiment, Newton's rings, interference by thin films, Michelson interferometer. Fraunhofer diffractionsingle slit, double slit, diffraction grating, resolving power. Fresnel diffractionhalfperiod zones and zone plate. Production and detection of linearly, circularly and elliptically polarised light. Double refraction, quarterwaves plates and halfwave plates. Polarizing sheets. Optical activity and applications. Rayleigh scattering and applications.
Elements of fibre opticsattenuation; pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index fibres; material dispersion. Lasers, characteristics of laser lightspatial and temporal coherence. Focussing of laser beams and applciations.
 Heat and Thermodynamics
Thermal equilibrium and temperature. The zeroth law of thermodynamics. Heat and the first law of thermodynamics. Efficiency of Carnot engines. Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. Kinetic theory and the equation of state of an ideal gas. Mean free path, distribution of molecular speeds and energies. Trasport phenomena. Andrew's experiementsvan der Waals equation and applications. JouleKelvin effect and applications. Brownian motion. Thermodynamic potentialsMaxwell relations. Phase transitions. Kirchhoff's laws. Blackbody radiationStefanBoltzmann law, spectral radiancy, Wien displacement law, application to the cosmic microwave background radiation, Planck radiation law.
 Electricity and Magnetism
Electric charge, Coulomb's law, electric field, Gauss' law. Electric potential, van de Graff accelerator. Capacitors, dielectrics and polarization. Ohm's law, Kirchhoff's first and second rules, resistors in series and parallel, applications to twoloop circuits. Magnietic fieldGauss'law for magnetism, atomic and nuclear magnetism, magnetic susceptibility, classification of magnetic materials. Cirulating charges, cyclotron, synchrotron. Hall effect. BiotSavart law, Ampere's law, Faraday's law of induction., Lenz's law. Inductance. Alternating current circuitsRC, LR, singleloop LRC circuits, impedance, resonance, power in AC circuits. Displacement current, Maxwell's equations (MKS units), electromagnetic waves, energy transport and Poynting vector.
 Atomic and Nuclear Physics
Photoelectric effect, Einstein's photon theory. Bohr's theory of hydrogen atom. SternGerlach experiment, quantisation of angular momentum, electron spin. Pauli exclusion principle and applications. Zeeman effect. Xray spectrum, Bragg's law, Bohr's theory of the Mosley plot. Compton effect, Compton wavelength. Wave nature of matter, de Broglie wavelength, waveparticle duality. Heisenberg's uncertainty relationships. Schroedinger's equationeigenvalues and eigenfunctions of (i) particle in a box, (ii) simple harmonic oscillator and (iii) hydrogen atom. Potential step and barrier penetration. Natural and artificial radioactivity. Binding energy of nuclei, nuclear fission and fusion. Classification of elementary particles and their interactions.
 Electronics
Diodes in halfwaves and fullwave rectification, qualitative ideas of semiconductors, p type and n type semiconductors, junction diode, Zener diode, transistors, binary numbers, Logic gates and truth tables, Elements of microprocessors and computers.

