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UPSC - Syllabus - Geography

Examination Syllabus - Subject : Geography

    Section-A (Physical Georgraphy)
  • Geomorphology
    Origin of the earth; Geological Time Scale; Interior of the earth; Types and characteristics of rocks; Folding and Faulting; Volcanoes; Earthquakes; Weathering; Landforms caused by fluvial, aeolian and glacial actions.
  • Climatology
    Structure and composition of atmosphere; Temperature; Pressure belts and Wind systems; Clouds and rainfall types; Cyclones and anti-cyclones; Major climatic types.
  • Oceanography
    Ocean relief; Temperature; Salinity; Ocean deposits; Ocean currents, El Nino and La Nino; Waves and tides.
  • Biogeography
    Origin and types of soils; Major biomes of the world; Ecosystem and food chain; Environmental degradation and conservation.
    Section-B (Human Geography)
  • Man and Environment Relationship
    Growth and development of Human Geography; Concepts of Determinism and Possibilism.
  • Population
    Races of mankind and tribes; growth and distribution of world population; migration; population problems of developed and developing countries.
  • Economic Activities
    Food gathering and hunting; pastoral herding; fishing and forestry; Types of agriculture-shifting, subsistence, commercial and plantation; Mining, Power; Manufacturing -locational factors of textile, iron and steel, sugar and fertilizer industries; Tertiary activities-trade, transport, communication and services.
  • Settlements
    Origin, types and patterns of rural settlements; Processes of urbanisation; morphology and functional classification of towns; million-cities and mega-cities.
    Section-C (Geography of the World)
  • Major Natural Regions : Characteristics, economic base and human adaptation.
  • Regional Geography of Developed Countries : Canada, U.S.A., Western Europe, Russia, Japan, Australia and New Zealand.
  • Regional Geography of Developing Countries : S.E. Asia, S.W. Asia, China, Southern Africa and Brazil.
  • Regional Geography of South Asia.
    Section-D (Geography of India)
  • Physical Setting
    Landforms, drainage, climate, soils and natural vegetation.
  • Economic Base
    Minerals & energy resources, aquatic resources, forest resources; irrigation, agriculture and industries; trade and commerce.
  • Population
    Growth, distribution and density; demographic characteristics.
  • Environmental problems, developmental issues and regional planning.
    Section-E (Geographical Thought)
  • Ancient Period : Contributions of Indians, Greeks, Romans and Arabs.
  • Pre-Modern Period : Contribution of Verenius, Kant, Humboldt and Ritter.
  • Modern Period : Dichotomy of determinism and possibilism; contributions of Ratzel, Semple, Huntington and La Blache.
  • Recent Period : Quantitive Revolution; Radicalism, Behaviouralism and Humanism.
    Section-F (Techniques of Geographical Analysis)
  • Maps : Scale and types, uses.
  • Diagrams : Types and uses
  • Projections : Types, characteristics and uses.
  • Remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) : Aerial photographs and imagery, GIS.


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