|UPSC - Syllabus - Psychology|
Main Examination Syllabus - Subject : Psychology
Paper-I (Foundations of Psychology)
- Introduction : Psychology as a Science
Definitions and perspective. Psychology in relation to other social and natural sciences. Use of interdiciplinary approach.
- Methods of Psychology
Characteristics and componets of methods in psychology (induction, deduction and introspection). Observation, Survey, Laboratory and field experiments. Clinical and Case study. Experimental and quasi experimental methods.
- Research methods and quantitative analysis
Major steps in psychological research (problem statement, hypothesis formulation, research design, sampling, tools of data collection, analysis and interpretation and report writing). Fundamental versus applied research. Methods of data collection (interview, observation, questionnaire and case study). Research Designs (Ex-post facto and experimental). Application of statistical techniques (t-test, one-way ANOVA correlation and regression and chi-square tests).
- Development of Human Behaviour
The nature, origin and development. Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behaviour. Influence of cultural factors and socialisation. Life span development-the critical periods and their handling, Mastery of the developmental tasks. Influence of child rearing practices and its impact on the growth and development of the individual, concept of national character.
- Attention and perception
Attention - factors, influencing attention including set and characteristics of stimulus. Sensation-concepts of threshold, absolute and difference thresholds, signal detection and vigilance. Definition and concept of perception, biological factors in perception. Perceptual organisation-influence of past experiences, Perceptual defence-factors influencing. Space and depth perception, size estimation and perceptual readiness.
Concepts and theories of learning (Pavlov, Skimer and Piaget). The processes of extinction, discrimination and generalisation. Programmed learning, probability learning, self instructional learning, concepts, types and the schedules of reinforcement. Modelling and social learning.
Concepts and definition of memory and forgetting, 7+/-2 concept and clumking Encoding, storage and retrieval. Factors influencing retention and foregetting. Theories of forgetting (Repression, Decay and Interference theories). The concept of reminiscence.
- Thinking and Problem Solving
Concept formation processes. Resoning and problem solving. Creative thinking and fostering creativity. Information processing. Decision making and judgement.
- Intelligence and Aptitude
Concept and definition of Intelligence and aptitude, Nature and theories of intelligence. Measurement of Intelligence and aptitude Concepts and measurement of emotional and multiple intelligence.
- Motivation and Emotion
Definition and concepts. Theories and physiological basis of motivation and emotion. Measurement of motivation and emotion Motivation and emotion-their effects on behaviour.
Concept and definition of personality. Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, socio-cultural, interpersonal and developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches). Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper tet). The Indian approach to Personality. Training for personality development.
- Language and Communication
Human language-properties, structure and linguistic hierarchy, Language acquisition-predisposition, critical period hypothesis. Theories of language development (Skinner, Chomsky), Process and types of communication. Effective communication and training.
- Attitudes, Values and Interests
Definitions, concepts of attitudes, values and interests. Components ofattitudes, values and interests. Formation and maintenance of attitudes. Measurement of attitudes, values and interests. Theories of attitudes, and attitudes changes, strategies for fostering values.
- Recent Trends
Computer application in the Psychological laboratory and psychological testing. Articial Intelligence. Psychocybernetics. Study of consciousness-sleep-wake schedules; dreams, stimulus deprivation, meditation, hypnotic/drug induced states. Extrasensory perception. Intersensory perception Simulation studies.
Paper-II (Psychology : Issues and Applications)
- Psychological Measurement of Individual Diference
The nature of individual differences. Characteristics and construction of standardized psychological tests. Types of psychological tests. Use, misuse and limitation of psychological tests. Ethical issues in the use of psychological tests.
- Well being and Mental Disorders
Concept of health, positive health, well being and ill health. Mental disorders (Anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophernia and delusional disorders; personality disorders, substance abuse disorders). Causal factors in mental disorders. Factors influencing positive health, well being, life style and quality of life.
- Therapeutic Approaches
Psychody-namic therapies. Behaviour therapies. Client centered therapy. Cognitive therapies. Indigenous therapies (Yoga, Reiki, Meditation) Biofeedback therapy. Prevention and rehabilitation of the mentally ill.
- Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour
Personnel selection and training. Use of Psychological tests in the industry. Training and human resource development. Theories of work motivation. Leadership and participatory management. Advertising and marketing.
- Application of Psychology to Educational Field
Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning process.Learning styles Gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their training. Training for improving memory and better academic achievement. Personality development and value education, Educational, vocational guidance and Career counselling. Use of Psychological tests in educational institutions.
- Communty Psychology
Definition and concept of Community Psychology. Role of community psychologists in social change. Use of small groups in social action. Arousing community consciousness and action for handling social problems. Group decision making and leadership for social change.
- Rehabilitation Psychology
Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programmes-role of psychologists. Organising of services for rehabilitation of physically, mentally and socially challenged persons including old persons. Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behaviours. Rehabilitation of victims of violence. Rehabiliation of HIV/.AIDS victims.
- Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups
The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation and socially deprived. Social, physical, cultural and economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups. Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards development.
- Psychological and the problem of social integration
The concept of social integration. The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts and prejudice. Nature and manifestation of prejudice between the ingroup and outgroup. Casual factors of such conflicts and prejudices. Psychological strategies for handling the conflicts and prejudices. Measures to achieve social integration.
- Application of psychology in Information Technology and Mass media
The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role of psychologists. Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and mass media. Distance learning through IT and mass media. Entrepre neurship through e-commerce. Multilevel marketing. Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass media. Psychological consequences of recent developments in Information Technology.
- Application of Psychology in the field of Defence
The concept of Military psychology, Aviation psychology and Pschological warfare Role of Military psychologists in the defence. Selection, recruitment and training of personnel. Facilitating the process of adjustment of personnel to military life-Role of Counselling. Devising Psychological tests for defence personnel. Psychological disorders due to war. Human engineering in Defence.
- Psychology and Economic develoment
Achievemnt motivation ad economic development. Characteristics of entrepreneurial behaviour. Motivating and Training people for entrepreneurship and economic development. Women Entrepreneurs. Consumer rights and consumer courts.
- Application of psychology to enviroment and related fields
Environmental psychology-effects of noise, pollution and crowding. Population psychology-psychological consquences of population explosion and high population density. Motivating for small family norms. Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of environment.
- Other applications of psychology
Sports psychology-improving performance of sports, personnel, psychology and understanding of political behaviour. Voting behaviours. Psychology of corruption and strategies to deal with Psychology of terrorism.