


UPSC  Syllabus  Physics   

Main Examination Syllabus  Subject : Physics
PaperI
SectionA
 Classical Mechanics
 Particle dynamics
Centre of mass and laboratory coordinates, conservation of linear and angular momentum. The rocket equation. Rutherford scattering, Galilean transformation, intertial and noninertial frames, rotating frames, centrifugal and Coriolis forces, Foucault pendulum.
 System of particles
Constraints, degrees of freedom, generalised coordinates and momenta. Lagrange's equation and applications to linear harmonic oscillator, simple pendulum and central force problems. Cyclic coordinates, Hamilitonian Lagrange's equation from Hamilton's principle.
 Rigid body dynamics
Eulerian angles, inertia tensor, principal moments of inertia. Euler's equation of motion of a rigid body, forcefree motion of a rigid body. Gyroscope.
 Special Relativity, Waves & Geometrical Optics
 Special Relativity
MichelsonMorley experiment and its implications. Lorentz transformationslength contraction, time dilation, addition of velocities, aberration and Doppler effect, massenergy relation, simple applications to a decay process. Minkowski diagram, four dimensional momentum vector. Covariance of equations of physics.
 Waves
Simple harmonic motion, damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance. Beats. Stationary waves in a string. Pulses and wave packets. Phase and group velocities. Reflection and Refraction from Huygens' principle.
 Geometrical Optics
Laws of relfection and refraction from Fermat's principle. Matrix method in paraxial opticthin lens formula, nodal planes, system of two thin lenses, chromatic and spherical aberrations.
 Physical Optics
 Interference
Interference of lightYoung's experiment, Newton's rings, interference by thin films, Michelson interferometer. Multiple beam interference and FabryPerot interferometer. Holography and simple applications.
 Diffraction
Fraunhofer diffractionsingle slit, double slit, diffraction grating, resolving power. Fresnel diffraction:  halfperiod zones and zones plates. Fresnel integrals. Application of Cornu's spiral to the analysis of diffraction at a straight edge and by a long narrow slit. Diffraction by a circular aperture and the Airy pattern.
 Polarisation and Modern Optics
Production and detection of linearly and circularly polarised light. Double refraction, quarter wave plate. Optical activity. Principles of fibre optics attenuation; pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index fibres; material dispersion, single mode fibres. LasersEinstein A and B coefficients. Ruby and HeNe lasers. Characteristics of laser lightspatial and temporal coherence. Focussing of laser beams. Threelevel scheme for laser operation.
SectionB
 Electricity and Magnetism
 Electrostatics and Magnetostatics
Laplace ad Poisson equations in electrostatics and their applications. Energy of a system of charges, multipole expansion of scalar potential. Method of images and its applications. Potential and field due to a dipole, force and torque on a dipole in an external field. Dielectrics, polarisation. Solutions to bounaryvalue problemsconducting and dielectric spheres in a uniform electric field. Magentic shell, uniformly magnetised sphere. Ferromagnetic materials, hysteresis, energy loss.
 Current Electricity
Kirchhoff's laws and their applications. BiotSavart law, Ampere's law, Faraday's law, Lenz' law. Selfand mutualinductances. Mean and rms values in AC circuits. LR CR and LCR circuits series and parallel resonance. Quality factor. Principal of transformer.
 Electromagnetic Theory & Black Body Radiation
 Electromagnetic Theory
Displacement current and Maxwell's equatons. Wave equations in vacuum, Poynting theorem. Vector and scalar potentials. Gauge invariance, Lorentz and Coulomb gauges. Electromagnetic field tensor, covariance of Maxwell's equations. Wave equations in isotropic dielectrics, reflection and refraction at the boundary of two dielectrics. Fresnel's relations. Normal and anomalous dispersion. Rayleigh scattering.
 Blackbody radiation
Balckbody radiation ad Planck radiation law StefanBoltzmann law, Wien displacement law and RayleighJeans law. Planck mass, Planck length, Planck time,. Planck temperature and Planck energy.
 Thermal and Statistical Physics
 Thremodynamics
Laws of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, entropy. Isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric processes and entropy change. Otto and Diesel engines, Gibbs' phase rule and chemical potential. van der Waals equation of state of a real gas, critical constants. MaxwellBoltzman distribution of molecular velocities, transport phenomena, equipartition and virial theorems. DulongPetit, Einstein, and Debye's theories of specific heat of solids. Maxwell lllrelations and applications. Clausius Clapeyron equation. Adiabatic demagnetisation, JouleKelvin effect and liquefaction of gases.
 Statistical Physics
Saha ionization formula. BoseEinstein condenssation. Thermodynamic behaviour of an ideal Fermi gas, Chandrasekhar limit, elementary ideas about neutron stars and pulsars. Brownian motion as a random walk, diffusion process. Concept of negative temperatures.
PaperII
SectionA
 Quantum Mechanics I
Waveparticle dualitiy. Schroedinger equation and expectation values. Uncertainty principle. Solutions of the onedimensional Schroedinger equation free particle (Gaussian wavepacket), particle in a box, particle in a finite well, linear harmonic oscillator. Reflection and transmission by a potential step and by a rectangular barrier. Use of WKB formula for the lifetime calcuation in the alphadecay problem.
 Quantum Mechanics II & Atomic Physics
 Quantum Mechanics II
Particle in a three dimensional box, density of states, free electron theory of metals. The angular meomentum problem. The hydrogen atom. The spin half problem and properties of Pauli spin matrices.
 Atomic Physics
SternGerlack experiment, electron spin, fine structure of hydrogen atom. LS coupling, JJ coupling. Spectroscopic notation of atomic states. Zeeman effect. FrankCondon principle and applications.
 Molecular Physics
Elementary theory of rotational, vibratonal and electronic spectra of diatomic molecules. Raman effect and molecular structure. Laser Raman spectroscopy Importance of neutral hydrogen atom, molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen ion in astronomy Fluorescence and Phosphorescence. Elementary theory and applications of NMR. Elementary ideas about Lamb shift and its significance.
SectionB
 Nuclear Physics
Basic nuclear propertiessize, binding energy, angular momentum, parity, magnetic moment. Semiempirical mass formula and applications. Mass parabolas. Ground state of a deuteron magnetic moment and noncentral forces. Meson theory of nuclear forces. Salient features of nuclear forces. Shell model of the nucleussuccess and limitations. Violation of parity in beta decay. Gamma decay and internal conversion. Elementary ideas about Mossbauer spectroscopy. Qvalue of nuclear reactions. Nuclear fission and fusion, energy production in stars. Nuclear reactors.
 Particle Physics & Solid State Physics
 Particle Physics
Classification of elementary particles and their interactions. Conservation laws. Quark structure of hadrons. Field quanta of electroweak and strong interactions. Elementary ideas about Unification of Forces. Physics of neutrinos.
 Solid State Physics
Cubic crystal structure. Band theory of solids conductors, insulators and semiconductors. Elements of superconductivity, Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and applications. Elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity.
 Electronics
Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductorspnp and npn transistors.Amplifiers and oscillators. Opamps. FET, JFET and MOSFET. Digital electronicsBoolean identities, De; Morgan's laws, Logic gates and truth tables., Simple logic circuits. Thermistors, solar cells. Fundamentals of microprocessors and digital computers.

