


UPSC  Syllabus  Electrical Engineering   

Main Examination Syllabus  Subject : Electrical Engineering
PaperI
 Electrical Circuits–Theory and Applications
Circuit componets; network graphs; KCL, KVL; circuit analysis methods : nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis : RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits and applications; coupled circuits and applications; balanced 3phase circuits. Twoport networks, driving point and transfer functions; poles and zeros of network functions. Elements of networks synthesis. Filtertheory : design and applications. Active filters. Circuit simulation : Input formats; methods of education formulation; solution of equations; output formats; SPICE.
 Signals & Systems
Representation of continuous–time and discretetime signals & systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; timedomain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Ztransform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through discretetime systems.
 E.M. Theory
Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflaction and refraction of plane waves. Transmission line : Distributed parameter circuits, travelling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith chart. Waveguides : parallel plane guide, TE, TM and TEM waves, rectangular and cylindrical wave guides, resonators. Planar transmission lines; stripline, microstripline.
 Analog Electronics
Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and smallsignal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits : clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror; Amplifiers : single and multistage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequencyresponse of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators : criterion for oscillation; singletransistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and waveshaping circuits. Power supplies.
 Digital Electronics
Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits : arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits : latches and flipflops, counters and shiftregisters. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).
 Energy Conversion
Principles of electromechanical energy conversion : Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC machines : charateristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors.
Transformers : principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3phase transformers. 3phase induction machines and synchronous machines : characteristics and preformance analysis; speed control. Special machines : Stepper motors, brushless dc motors, permanent magnet motors singlephase motors; FHP.
 Power Electronics and Electric Drives
Semiconductor power devices : diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET–static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters : fullycontrolled and halfcontrolled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac motor drives applications of variablespeed drives.
 Analog Communication
Random variables : continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statististical averages; probability models; Random signals and noise : white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal transmission with noise; signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation : Amplitude modulation : DSB, DSBSC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation : PM & FM signals; narrowband FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Preemphasis. CW modulation system : Superhetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation for AM and FM receivers.
 Microwaves and Antenna
Electromagnetic radiation, Propagation of waves : ground waves, sky wave, space wave, tropospheric scatter propagation. Extraterrestrial communications. Antenna : Various types, gain, resistance, bandwidth, beamwidth and polarization, effect of ground. Antenna coupling; high frequency antennas; microwave antennas; special purpose antennas. Microwave Services : Klystron, magnetron, TWT, gun diodes, Impatt, Bipolar and FETs, Microwave integrated circuits. Microwave measurements.
PaperII
 Control Systems
Elements of control systems; blockdiagram representation; openloop & closedloop systems; principles and applications of feedback. LTI systems : timedomain and transformdomain analysis. Stability : Routh Hurwitz criterion, rootloci, Nyquist’s criterion, Bodeplots, Design of leadlad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. Statevariable representation and analysis of control systems. Principles of discretecontrol systems.
 Electrical Engineering Materials
Electrical/electronic behaviour of materials : conductivity; freeelectrons and bandtheory; intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor, pn junction; solar cells, superconductivity. Dielectric behaviour of materials; polarization phenomena; piezoelectric phenomena. Magnetic materials : behaviour and application. Photonic materials : refractive index, absorption and emission of light, optical fibres, lasers and optoelectronic materials.
 Microprocessors and microcomputers
8bit microprocessor : architecture, CPU, module design, memory interfacing, I/O, Peripheral controllers, Multiprocessing. IBM PC architecture : overview, introduction to DOS, Advanced microprocessors.
 Measurement and Instrumentation
Error analysis; measurement of current voltage, power, energy, powerfactor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurement. Electronic measuring instruments : multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Qmeter, spectrumanalyser, distortionmeter. Transducers : thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strainguage, piezoelectric crystal. Use of transducers in measurements of nonelectrical quantities. Dataacquisition systems.
 IC Technology
Overview of IC Technology. Unitsteps used in IC fabrication : wafer cleaning, photolithography, wet and dry etching, oxidation, diffusion, ionimplantation, CVD and LPCVD techniques for deposition of polysilicon, silicon, siliconnitride and silicon dioxide; metallisation and passivation.
 Power Systems : Analysis and Control
Steadystate performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; perunit quantities; bus admittance and impedance materices; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmeterical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concept of system stability : swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission; FACTS. Computer control and Automation : Introduction to energy control centres; various states of a power system; SCADA systems and RTUs. Active power control : Speed control of generators, tieline control, frequency control. Economic dispatch.
 Power system protection
Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays. Circuit brakers. Computer aided protection : Introduction; line bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays and application of DSP to protection.
 Nonconventional Energy Sources and Energy Management
Introduction to the energy problem; difficulties with conventional energy sources. WindEnergy : Basics of Wind turbine aerodynamics; windenergy conversion systems and their integration into electrical grid. SolarEnergy : Thermal conversion : photovoltaic conversion. Waveenergy. Importance of Energy Management : Energy audit; energy economics : discount rate, payback period, internal rate of return, life cycle costing.
 Digital Communiation
Pulse code modulation (PCM), diferential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes : amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding : error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolution codes. Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7layer architecture.
 Satellite Communication, Radar and TV
Satellite Communincation : General overview and technical characteristics, earth station equipment, satellite link design, CNR of Satellite system. Radar : Basic principles, Pulsed systems : CW Doppler radar, FMCW radar, Phase array radars. Television Systems : Television systems and standards, Blackand Whiteand ColourTV transmission and receiver systems.
 Fibre Optic System
Multiplexing : Time division multiplexing, Frequency Division multiplexing. Optical properties of materials : Refractive index absorption and emission of light, optical fibres, lasers and optoelectronic materials Fibre optic links.

