Indian Forest Service Exam (IFS) :   

 Mechanical Engineering
 Physics
 Statistics
 Zoology
Mechanical Engineering
PaperI
1. Theory of Machines
Kinematic and dynamic analysis of planar mechanisms. Cams, Gears and gear trains, Flywheels, Governors, Balancing of rigid rotors, Balancing of single and multicylinder engines, Linear vibration analysis of mechnical systems (single degree and two degrees of freedom), Critical speeds and whirling of shafts, Automatic Controls, Belts and chain drives. Hydrodynamic bearings.
2. Mechanics of Solids :
Stress and strain in two dimensions. Principal stresses and strains, Mohr’s construction, linear elastic materials, isotropy and an isotropy, Stressstrain relations, unlaxial loading, thermal stresses. Beams : Banding moment and shear force diagrams, bending stresses and deflection of beams, Shear stress distribution. Torsion of shafts, helical springs. Combined stresses, Thick and thin walled pressure vessels. Struls and columns, Strain energy concepts and theories of failure. Rotation discs. Shrink fits.
3. Enginerring Materials :
Basic concepts on structure of solids, Crystalline materials, Defects in crystalline materials, Alloys and binary phase diagrams, structure and properties of common engineering materials. Heat treatment of steels. Plastics, Ceramics and composite Materials, common applications of various materials.
4. Manufacturing Science :
Marchant’s force analysis, Taylor’s tool life equation, machinability and machining economics, Rigid, small and flexible automation, NC, CNC. Recent machining methods EDM, ECM and ultrasonics. Application of lasers and plasmas, analysis of forming processes. High energy rate forming. Jigs, fixtures, tools and gauges, Inspection of length, position, profile and surface finish.
5. Manufacturing management :
Production Planning and Control, ForecastingMoving average, exponential smoothing, Operations sheduling; assembly line balancing. Product development. Breakeven analysis, Capacity planning. PERT and CPM.
Control Operations : Inventory controlABC analysis. EOQ model. Materials requirement planning. Job design, Job standards, work measurement, Quality managementQuality control. Operations Research : Linear programmingGraphical and Simplex methods. Transportation and assignment models. Single server queuing model.
Value Engineering : Value analysis, for cost/value. Total quality management and forecasting techniques. Project management.
6. Elements Of Computation :
Computer Organisation, Flow charting. Features of Common Computer LanguagesFORTRAN d Base III, Lotus 123 C and elementary programming.
PaperII
1. Thermodynamics :
Basic concept. Open and closed systems, Applications of Thermodynamic Laws, Gas equations, Clapeyron equation, Availability, Irreversibility and Tds relations.
2. I.C. Engines, Fuels and Combustion :
Spark lgnition and compression ignition engines, Four stroke engine and Two stroke engines, mechanical, thermal and volumetric efficiency, Heat balance.
Combustion process in S.I. and C.I. engines, preignition detonation in S.I. engine Diesel knock in C.I. engine. Choice of engine fuels, Octance and Cetane retings. Alternate fuels Carburration and Fuel injection, Engine emissions and control. Solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, stoichometric air requirements and excess air factor, fuel gas analysis, higher and lower calorific values and their measurements.
3. Heat Transfer, Refrigeration And Air Conditioning :
One and two dimensional heat conduction. Heat transfer from extended surfaces, heat transfer by forced and free convection. Heat exchangers. Fundamentals for diffusive and connective mass transfer, Radiation laws, heat exchange between black and non balck surfaces, Network Analysis. Heat pump refrigeration cycles and systems, Condensers, evaporators and expansion devices and controls. Properties and choice of refrigerant, Refrigeration Systems and components, psychometrics, comfort indices, cooling loading calculations, solar refrigeration.
4. TurboMachines And Power Plants :
Continuity, momentum and Energy Equations. Adiabatic and Isentropic flow, fanno lines, Raylegh lines. Theory and design of axial flow turbines and compressors, Flow through turbomachine balde, cascades, centrifugal compressor. Dimensional analysis and modelling. Selection of site for steam, hydro, nuclear and standby power plants, selection base and peak load power plants Modern High pressure, High duty boilers, Draft and dust removal equipment, Fuel and cooling water systems, heat balance, station and palnt heat rates, operation and maintenance of various power plants, preventive maintenance, economics of power generation.
Physics
PaperI
SectionA
1. Classical Mechanics
(a) Particle dynamics
Centre of mass and laboratory coordinates, conservation of linear and angular momentum. The rocket equation. Rutherford scattering, Galilean transformation, intertial and noninertial frames, rotating frames, centrifugal and Coriolis forces, Foucault pendulum.
(b) System of particles
Constraints, degrees of freedom, generalised coordinates and momenta. Lagrange's equation and applications to linear harmonic oscillator, simple pendulum and central force problems. Cyclic coordinates, Hamilitonian Lagrange's equation from Hamilton's principle.
(c) Rigid body dynamics
Eulerian angles, inertia tensor, principal moments of inertia. Euler's equation of motion of a rigid body, forcefree motion of a rigid body. Gyroscope.
2. Special Relativity, Waves & Geometrical Optics
(a) Special Relativity
MichelsonMorley experiment and its implications. Lorentz transformationslength contraction, time dilation, addition of velocities, aberration and Doppler effect, massenergy relation, simple applications to a decay process. Minkowski diagram, four dimensional momentum vector. Covariance of equations of physics.
(b) Waves
Simple harmonic motion, damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance. Beats. Stationary waves in a string. Pulses and wave packets. Phase and group velocities. Reflection and Refraction from Huygens' principle.
(c) Geometrical Optics
Laws of relfection and refraction from Fermat's principle. Matrix method in paraxial opticthin lens formula, nodal planes, system of two thin lenses, chromatic and spherical aberrations.
3. Physical Optics
(a) Interference
Interference of lightYoung's experiment, Newton's rings, interference by thin films, Michelson interferometer. Multiple beam interference and FabryPerot interferometer. Holography and simple applications.
(b) Diffraction
Fraunhofer diffractionsingle slit, double slit, diffraction grating, resolving power. Fresnel diffraction:  halfperiod zones and zones plates. Fresnel integrals. Application of Cornu's spiral to the analysis of diffraction at a straight edge and by a long narrow slit. Diffraction by a circular aperture and the Airy pattern.
(c) Polarisation and Modern Optics
Production and detection of linearly and circularly polarised light. Double refraction, quarter wave plate. Optical activity. Principles of fibre optics attenuation; pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index fibres; material dispersion, single mode fibres. LasersEinstein A and B coefficients. Ruby and HeNe lasers. Characteristics of laser lightspatial and temporal coherence. Focussing of laser beams. Threelevel scheme for laser operation.
SectionB
4. Electricity and Magnetism
(a) Electrostatics and Magnetostatics
Laplace ad Poisson equations in electrostatics and their applications. Energy of a system of charges, multipole expansion of scalar potential. Method of images and its applications. Potential and field due to a dipole, force and torque on a dipole in an external field. Dielectrics, polarisation. Solutions to bounaryvalue problemsconducting and dielectric spheres in a uniform electric field. Magentic shell, uniformly magnetised sphere. Ferromagnetic materials, hysteresis, energy loss.
(b) Current Electricity
Kirchhoff's laws and their applications. BiotSavart law, Ampere's law, Faraday's law, Lenz' law. Selfand mutualinductances. Mean and rms values in AC circuits. LR CR and LCR circuits series and parallel resonance. Quality factor. Principal of transformer.
5. Electromagnetic Theory & Black Body Radiation
(a) Electromagnetic Theory
Displacement current and Maxwell's equatons. Wave equations in vacuum, Poynting theorem. Vector and scalar potentials. Gauge invariance, Lorentz and Coulomb gauges. Electromagnetic field tensor, covariance of Maxwell's equations. Wave equations in isotropic dielectrics, reflection and refraction at the boundary of two dielectrics. Fresnel's relations. Normal and anomalous dispersion. Rayleigh scattering.
(b) Blackbody radiation
Balckbody radiation ad Planck radiation law StefanBoltzmann law, Wien displacement law and RayleighJeans law. Planck mass, Planck length, Planck time,. Planck temperature and Planck energy.
6. Thermal and Statistical Physics
(a) Thremodynamics
Laws of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, entropy. Isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric processes and entropy change. Otto and Diesel engines, Gibbs' phase rule and chemical potential. van der Waals equation of state of a real gas, critical constants. MaxwellBoltzman distribution of molecular velocities, transport phenomena, equipartition and virial theorems. DulongPetit, Einstein, and Debye's theories of specific heat of solids. Maxwell lllrelations and applications. Clausius Clapeyron equation. Adiabatic demagnetisation, JouleKelvin effect and liquefaction of gases.
(b) Statistical Physics
Saha ionization formula. BoseEinstein condenssation. Thermodynamic behaviour of an ideal Fermi gas, Chandrasekhar limit, elementary ideas about neutron stars and pulsars. Brownian motion as a random walk, diffusion process. Concept of negative temperatures.
PaperII
SectionA
1. Quantum Mechanics I
Waveparticle dualitiy. Schroedinger equation and expectation values. Uncertainty principle. Solutions of the onedimensional Schroedinger equation free particle (Gaussian wavepacket), particle in a box, particle in a finite well, linear harmonic oscillator. Reflection and transmission by a potential step and by a rectangular barrier. Use of WKB formula for the lifetime calcuation in the alphadecay problem.
2. Quantum Mechanics II & Atomic Physics
(a) Quantum Mechanics II
Particle in a three dimensional box, density of states, free electron theory of metals. The angular meomentum problem. The hydrogen atom. The spin half problem and properties of Pauli spin matrices.
(b) Atomic Physics
SternGerlack experiment, electron spin, fine structure of hydrogen atom. LS coupling, JJ coupling. Spectroscopic notation of atomic states. Zeeman effect. FrankCondon principle and applications.
3. Molecular Physics
Elementary theory of rotational, vibratonal and electronic spectra of diatomic molecules. Raman effect and molecular structure. Laser Raman spectroscopy Importance of neutral hydrogen atom, molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen ion in astronomy Fluorescence and Phosphorescence. Elementary theory and applications of NMR. Elementary ideas about Lamb shift and its significance.
SectionB
4. Nuclear Physics
Basic nuclear propertiessize, binding energy, angular momentum, parity, magnetic moment. Semiempirical mass formula and applications. Mass parabolas. Ground state of a deuteron magnetic moment and noncentral forces. Meson theory of nuclear forces. Salient features of nuclear forces. Shell model of the nucleussuccess and limitations. Violation of parity in beta decay. Gamma decay and internal conversion. Elementary ideas about Mossbauer spectroscopy. Qvalue of nuclear reactions. Nuclear fission and fusion, energy production in stars. Nuclear reactors.
5. Particle Physics & Solid State Physics
(a) Particle Physics
Classification of elementary particles and their interactions. Conservation laws. Quark structure of hadrons. Field quanta of electroweak and strong interactions. Elementary ideas about Unification of Forces. Physics of neutrinos.
(b) Solid State Physics
Cubic crystal structure. Band theory of solids conductors, insulators and semiconductors. Elements of superconductivity, Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and applications. Elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity.
6. Electronics
Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductorspnp and npn transistors.Amplifiers and oscillators. Opamps. FET, JFET and MOSFET. Digital electronicsBoolean identities, De; Morgan's laws, Logic gates and truth tables., Simple logic circuits. Thermistors, solar cells. Fundamentals of microprocessors and digital computers.
Statistics
PaperI
Probability :
Sample space and events, probability measure and probability space, random variable as a measurable function, distribution function of a random variable, discrete and continuoustype random variable probability mass function, probability density function, vectorvalued random variable, marginal and conditional distributions, stochastic independence of events and of random variables, expectation and moments of a random variable, conditional expectation, convergence of a sequence of random variable in distribution, in probability, in pth mean and almost everywhere, their criteria and interrelations, BorelCantelli lemma, Chebyshev’s and Khinchine‘s weak laws of large numbers, strong law of large numbers and kolmogorov’s theorems, GlivenkoCantelli theorem, probability generating function, characteristic function, inversion theorem, Laplace transform, related uniqueness and continuity theorems, determination of distribution by its moments. Linderberg and Levy forms of central limit theorem, standard discrete and continuous probability distributions, their interrelations and limiting cases, simple properties of finite Markov chains.
Statistical Inference
Consistency, unbiasedness, efficiency, sufficiency, minimal sufficiency, completeness, ancillary statistic, factorization theorem, exponential family of distribution and its properties, uniformly minimum variance unbiased (UMVU) estimation, RaoBlackwell and LehmannScheffe theorems, CramerRao inequality for single and severalparameter family of distributions, minimum variance bound estimator and its properties, modifications and extensions of CramerRao inequality, ChapmanRobbins inequality, Bhattacharyya’s bounds, estimation by methods of moments, maximum likelihood, least squares, minimum chisquare and modified minimum chisquare, properties of maximum likelihood and other estimators, idea of asymptotic efficiency, idea of prior and posterior distributions, Bayes estimators.
Nonrandomised and randomised tests, critical function, MP tests, NeymanPearson lemma, UMP tests, monotone likelihood ratio, generalised NeymanPearson lemma, similar and unbiased tests, UMPU tests for single and severalparameter families of distributions, likelihood rotates and its large sample properties, chisquare goodness of fit test and its asymptotic distribution.
Confidence bounds and its relation with tests, uniformly most accurate (UMA) and UMA unbiased confidence bounds.
Kolmogorov’s test for goodness of fit and its consistency, sign test and its optimality. wilcoxon signedranks test and its consistency, KolmogorovSmirnov twosample test, run test, WilcoxonMannWhiltney test and median test, their consistency and asymptotic normality.
Wald’s SPRT and its properties, OC and ASN functions, Wald’s fundamental identity, sequential estimation.
Linear Inference and Multivariate Analysis
Linear statistical modesl, theory of least squares and analysis of variance, GaussMarkoff theory, normal equations, least squares estimates and their precision, test of signficance and interval estimates based on least squares theory in oneway, twoway and threeway classified data, regression analysis, linear regression, curvilinear regression and orthogonal polynomials, multiple regression, multiple and partial correlations, regression diagnostics and sensitivity analysis, calibration problems, estimation of variance and covariance components, MINQUE theory, multivariate normal distributin, Mahalanobis;’ D2 and Hotelling’s T2 statistics and their applications and properties, discriminant analysis, canonical correlations, oneway MANOVA, principal component analysis, elements of factor analysis.
Sampling Theory and Design of Experiments
An outline of fixedpopulation and superpopulation approaches, distinctive features of finite population sampling, probability sampling designs, simple random sampling with and without replacement, stratified random sampling, systematic sampling and its efficacy for structural populations, cluster sampling, twostage and multistage sampling, ratio and regression, methods of estimation involving one or more auxiliary variables, twophase sampling, probability proportional to size sampling with and without replacement, the HansenHurwitz and the HorvitzThompson estimators, nonnegative variance estimation with reference to the HorvitzThompson estimator, nonsampling errors, Warner’s randomised response technique for sensitive characteristics.
Fixed effects model (twoway classification) random and mixed effects models (twoway classification per cell), CRD, RBD, LSD and their analyses, incomplete block designs, concepts of orthogonality and balance, BIBD, missing plot technique, factorial designs : 2n, 32 and 33, confounding in factorial experiments, splitplot and simple lattice designs.
PaperII
I. Industrial Statistics
Process and product control, general theory of control charts, different types of control charts for variables and attributes, X, R, s, p, np and c charts, cumulative sum chart, Vmask, single, double, multiple and sequential sampling plans for attributes, OC, ASN, AOQ and ATI curves, concepts of producer’s and consumer’s risks, AQL, LTPD and AOQL, sampling plans for variables, use of DodgeRomig and Military Standard tables.
Concepts of reliability, maintainability and availability, reliability of series and parallel systems and other simple configurations, renewal density and renewal function, survival models (exponential), Weibull, lognormal, Rayleigh, and bathtub), different types of redundancy and use of redundancy in reliability improvement, problems in lifetesting, censored and truncated experiments for exponential models.
II. Optimization Techniques
Different, types of models in Operational Research, their construction and general methods of solution, simulation and MonteCarlo methods, the structure and formulation of linear programming (LP) problem, simple LP model and its graphical solution, the simplex procedure, the twophase method and the Mtechnique with artificial variables, the duality theory of LP and its economic interpretation, sensitivity analysis, transportation and assignment problems, rectangular games, twoperson zerosum games, methods of solution (graphical and algerbraic).
Replacement of failing or deteriorating items, group and individual replacement policies, concept of scientific inventory management and analytical structure of inventory problems, simple models with deterministic and stochastic demand with and without lead time, storage models with particular reference to dam type.
Homogeneous discretetime Markov chains, transition probability matrix, classification of states and ergodic theorems, homogeneous continoustime Markov chains, Poisson process, elements of queueing theory, M/M/1, M/M/K, G/M/1 and M/G/1 queues.
Solution of statistical problems on computers using well known statistical software packages like SPSS.
III. Quantitative Economics and Official Statistics
Determination of trend, seasonal and cyclical components, BoxJenkins method, tests for stationery of series, ARIMA models and determination of orders of autoregressive and moving average components, forecasting.
Commonly used index numbersLaspeyre's, Paashe's and Fisher's ideal index numbers, chainbase index number uses and limitations of index numbers, index number of wholesale prices, consumer price index number, index numbers of agricultural and industrial production, tests, for mdex numbers lve proportonality test, timereversal test, factorreversal test, circular test and dimensional invariance test.
General linear model, ordinary least squares and generalised least squires methods of estimation, problem of multicollineaity, consequences and solutions of multicollinearity, autocorrelation and its consequeces, heteroscedasticity of disturbances and its testing, test for independe of disturbances, Zellner's seemingly unrelated regression equation model and its estimation, concept of structure and model for simulaneous equations, problem of identificationrank and order conditions of identifiability, twostage least squares method of estimation.
Present official statistical system in India relating to population, agriculture, industrial production, trade and prices, methods of collection of official statistics, their reliability and limitation and the principal publications containing such statistics, various official agencies responsible for data collection and their main functions.
IV. Demography and Psychometry
Demographic data from census, registration, NSS and other surveys, and their limitation and uses, definition, construction and uses of vital rates and ratios, measures of fertility, reproduction rates, morbidity rate, standardized death rate, complete and abridged life tables, construction of life tables from vital statistics and census returns, uses of life tables, logistic and other population growth curves, fitting a logistic curve, population projection, stable population theory, uses of stable population and quasistable population techniques in estimation of demographic parameters, morbidity and its measurement, standard classification by cause of death, health surveys and use of hospital statistics.
Methods of standardisation of scales and tests, Zscores, standard scores, Tscores, percentile scores, intelligence quotient and its measurement and uses, validity of test scores and its determination, use of factor analysis and path analysis in psychometry.
Zoology
Paper1
SectionA
1. Nonchordata and chordata :
(a) Classfication and relationship of varous phyla upto subclasses; Acoelomata and Coelomata; Protostomes and Deuterostomes, Bilateralia and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry.
(b) Protozoa : Locomotion, nutrition, reproduction; evolution of sex; General features and life history of Paramaecium, Monocystis, Plasmodium, and Leishmania.
(c) Porifera : Skeleton, canal system and reproduction.
(d) Coelenterata : Polymorphism, defensive structures and their mechanism; coral reefs and their formation; metagenesis; general features and life history of Obelia and Aurelia.
(e) Platyhelminthes : Parasitic adaptation; general features and life history of Fasciola and Taenia and their relation to man.
(f) Nemathelminthes : General features, life history and parasitic adaptation of Ascaris; nemathelminths in relation to man.
(g) Annelida : Coelom and metamerism; modes of life in polychaetes; general features and life history of nereis (Neanthes), earthworm (Pheretima) and leach (Hirudinaria).
(h) Arthropoda : Larval forms and parasitism in Crustacea; vision and respiration in arthropods (prawn, cockroach and scorpion); modification of mouth parts in insects (cockroach, mosquito, housefly, honey bee and butterfly); metamorphosis in insects and its hormonal regulation; social organization in insects (termites and honey bees).
(i) Mollusca : Feeding, respiration, locomotion, shell diversiy; general features and life history of Lamellidens, Pila and Sepia, torsion and detorsion in gastropods.
(j) Echinodermata : Feeding, respiration, locomotion larval forms; general features and life history of Asterias.
(k) Protochordata : Origin of chordates; general features and life history of Branchiostoma and Herdamania.
(l) Pisces : Scales, respiration, locomotion, migration.
(m) Amphibia : Origin of tetrapods; parental care, paedomorphosis.
(n) Reptilia : Origin of reptiles; skull types; status of Sphenodon and crocidiles.
(o) Aves : Origin of birds; flight adaptation, migration.
(p) Mammalia : Origin of mammals; denitition; general features of egglaying mammals, pouchedmammals, aquatic mammals and primates; endocrine glands and other hormone producing structures (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads) and their interrelationships.
(q) Comparative functional anatomy of various systems of vertebrates (integument and its derivatives, endoskeleton, locomotory organs, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system including heart and aortic arches; urinogenital system, brain and sense organs (eye and ear).
Section B
1. Ecology :
(a) Biosphere: Biogeochemical cycles, greenhouses effect, ozone layer and its impact; ecological succession, biomes and ecotones.
(b) Population, characteristics, population dynamics, population stabilization.
(c) Conservation of natural resources mineral mining, fisheries, aquaculture; forestry; grassland; wildlife (Project Tiger); susainable production in agricultureintegrated pest management.
(d) Environmental biodegradation; pollution and its impact on biosphere and its prevention.
II. Ethology :
(a) Behaviour : Sensory filtering, responsiveness, sign stimuli, learning, instinct, habituation, conditioning, imprinting.
(b) Role of hormones in drive; role of pheromones in alarm spreading; crypsis, predator detection, predator tactics, social behaviour in insects and primates; courtship (Drosophila, 3spine stickleback and birds).
(c) Orientation, navigation, homing; biological rhythms; biological clock, tidal, seasonal and circadian rhythms.
(d) Methods of studying animal behaviour.
III. Economic Zoology :
(a) Apiculture, sericulture, lac culture, carp culture, pearl culture, prawn culture.
(b) Major infectious and communicable diseases (small pox, plague, malaria, tuberculosis, cholera and AIDS) their vectors, pathogens and prevention.
(c) Cattle and livestock diseases, their pathogens (helminths) and vectors (ticks, mites,Tabanus, Stomoxys)
(d) Pests of sugar cane (Pyrilla perpusiella), oil seed (Achaea janata) and rice (Sitophilus oryzae).
IV. Biostatistics :
Designing of experiments; null hypothesis; correlation, regression, distribution and measure of central tendency, chi square, student ttest, Ftest (oneway & twoway Ftest).
V. Instrumental methods :
(a) Spectrophotometry, flame photometry, GeigerMuller counter, scintiliation counting.
(b) Electron microscopy (TEM, SEM).
PaperII
SectionA
I. Cell Biology :
(a) Structure and function of cell andits organelles(nucleus, plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and Iysosomes), cell division (mitosis and meiosis), mitotic spindle and mitotic apparatus, chromosome movement.
(b) WatsonCrick model of DNA, replication of DNA, protein synthesis, transcription and transcription factors.
II. Genetics
a) Gene structure and functions; genetic code.
(b) Sex chromosomes and sex determination in Drosophilla, nematodes and man.
(c) Mendel's laws of inheritance, recombination, linkage, linkagemaps, multiple alleles, cistron concept; genetics of blood groups.
(d) Mutations and mutagenesis : radiation and chemical.
(e) Cloning technology, plasmids and cosmids as vectors, transgenics, transposons, DNA sequence cloning and whole animal cloning (Principles and methodology).
(f) Regulation and gene expression in proand eukaryotes.
(g) Signal transduction; pedigreeanalysis; congenital diseases in man.
(h) Human genome mapping; DNA fingerprinting.
III. Evolution
(a) Origin of life
(b) Natural selection, role of mutation in evolution, mimicry, variation, isolation, speciation.
(c) Fossils and fossilization; evolution of horse, elephant and man.
(d) HardyWeinberg Law, causes of change in gene frequency.
(e) Continental drift and distribution of animals.
IV. Systematics
(a) Zoological nomenclature; international code; cladistics.
SectionB
I. Biochemistry
(a) Structure and role of carbohydrates, fats, lipids, proteins, aminoacids, nucleic acids; saturated and unsaturated fattyacids, cholesterol.
(b) Glycolysis and Krebs cycle, oxidation and reduction, oxidative phosphorylation; energy conservation and release, ATP, cyclic AMPits structure and role.
(c) Hormone classification (steroid and peptide hormones), biosynthesis and function.
(d) Enzymes : types and mechanisms of action; immunoglobulin and immunity; vitamins and coenzymes.
(e) Bioenergetics.
II Physiology (with special refernece ot mammals)
(a) Composition and constitutents of blood; blood groups and Rh factor in man; coagulation, factors and mechanism of coagulation; acidbase balance, thermo regulation.
(b) Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport; haemoglobin : constitutents and role in regulation.
(c) Nutritive requirements; role of salivary glands, liver, pancreas and intestinal glands in digestion and absorption.
(d) Excretory products; nephron and regulation of urine formation; osmoregulation.
(e) Types of muscles, mechanism of contraction of skeletal muscles.
(f) Neuron, nerve impulseits conduction and synaptic transmission; neurotransmitters.
(g) Vision, hearing and olfaction in man.
(h) Mechanism of hormone action.
(i) Physiology of reproduction, role of hormones and phermones.
III. Developmental Biology
(a) Differentiation from gamete to neurula stage; dedifferentiation; metaplasia, induction, morphogenesis and morphogen; fate maps of gastrulae in frog and chick; organogenesis of eye and heart, placenation in mammals.
(b) Role of cytoplasm in and genetic control of development; cell lineage; causation of metamorphosis in frog and insects; paedogenesia and neoteny; growth, degrowth and cell death; ageing; blastogenesis; regeneration; teratogenesis; neoplasia.
(c) Invasiveness of placenta; in vitro fertilization; embryo transfer, cloning.
(d) Baer's law; evodevo concept.
