|Indian Forest Service Exam (IFS) : |
1. Silviculture - General :
General Silvicultural Principles : ecological and physiological factors influencing vegetation, natural and artificial regeneration of forests; methods of propagation, grafting techniques; site factors; nursery and planting techniques-nursery beds, polybags and maintenance, water budgeting, grading and hardening of seedlings; special approaches; establishment and tending.
2. Silviculture - systems :
Clear felling, uniform shelter wood selection, coppice and conversion systems. Management of silviculture systems of temperate, subtropical, humid tropical, dry tropical and coastal tropical forests with special reference to plantation silviculture, choice of species, establishment and management of standards, enrichment methods, technical constraints, intensive mechanized methods, aerial seeding thinning.
3. Silviculture - Mangrove and Cold desert :
Mangrove : habitat and characteristics, mangrove, plantation-establishment and rehabilitation of degraded mangrove formations; silvicultural systems for mangrove; protection of habitats against natural disasters. Cold desert - Characteristics, identification and management of species.
4. Silviculture of trees :
Traditional and recent advances in tropical silvicultural research and practices. Silviculture of some of the economically important species in India such as Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Acacia auriculiformis, Albizzia lebbeck, Albizzia procera, Anthocephalus Cadamba, Anogeissus latifolia, Azadirachta indica, Bamboo spp, Butea monosperma, Cassia siamea, Casuarina equisetifolia, Cedrus deodara, Chukrasia tabularis, Dalbergia sisoo, Dipterocarpus spp., Emblica officindils, Eucalyptus spp, Gmelina Arborea, Hardwickia binata, Largerstroemia Lanceolata, Pinus roxburghi, Populus spp, Pterocarpus marsupium, Prosopis juliflora, Santalum album, Semecarpus anacardium,. Shorea robusta, Salmalia malabaricum, Tectona grandis, Terminalis tomemtosa, Tamarindus indica.
1. Agroforestry, Social Forestry, Joint Forest Management and Tribology :
Agroforestry - scope and necessity; role in the life of people and domestic animals and in integrated land use, planning especially related to (i) soil and water conservation; (ii) water recharge; (iii) nutrient availability to crops; (iv) nature and eco-system preservation including ecological blances through pest-predator relationships and (v) providing opportunities for enhancing bio-diversity, medicinal and other flora and fauna. Agro forestry systems under different agro-ecological zones; selection of species and role of multipurpose trees and NTFPs, techniques, food, fodder and fuel security. Research and Extension needs.
Social/Urban Forestry : objectives, scope and necessity; peoples participation.
JFM - principles, objectives, methodology, scope, benefits and role of NGOs.
Tribology - tribal scene in India; tribes, concept of races, principles of social grouping, stages of tribal economy, education, cultural tradition, customs, ethos and participation in forestry programmes.
2. Forest Soils, Soil Conservation and Watershed management :
Forests Soils, classification, factors affecting soil formation; physical, chemical and biological properties.
Soil conservation - definition, causes for erosion; types - wind and water erosion; conservation and management of eroded soils/areas, wind breaks, shelter belts; sand dunes; reclamation of saline and alkaline soils, water logged and other waste lands. Role of forests in conserving soils. Maintenance and build up of soil organic matter, provision of loppings for green leaf manuring; forest leaf litter and composting; Role of microorganisms in ameliorating soils; N and C cycles, VAM.
Watershed Management - concepts of watershed; role of mini-forests and forest trees in overall resource management, forest hydrology, watershed development in respect of torrent control, river channel stabilization, avalanche and landslide controls, rehabilitation of degraded areas; hilly and mountain areas; watershed management and environmental functions of forests; water-harvesting and conservation; ground water recharge and watershed management; role of integrating forest trees, horticultural crops, field crops, grass and fodders.
3. Environmental Conservation and Biodiversity :
Environment; components and importance, principles of conservation, impact of deforestation; forest fires and various human activities like mining, construction and developmental projects, population growth on environment.
Pollution - types, global warming, green house effects, ozone layer depletion, acid rain, impact and control measures, environmental monitoring; concept of sustainable development. Role of trees and forests in environmental conservation; control and prevention of air, water and noise pollution. Environmental policy and legislation in India. Environmental Impact Assessment. Economics assessment of watershed development vis-a-vis ecological and environmental protection.
4. Tree Improvement and Seed Technology :
General concept of tree improvement, methods and techniques, variation and its use, provenance, seed source, exotics; quantitative aspects of forest tree improvement, seed production and seed orchards, progeny tests, use of tree improvement in natural forest and stand improvement, genetic testing programming, selection and breeding for resistance to diseases, insects, and adverse environment; the genetic base, forest genetic resources and gene conservation in situ and ex-situ. Cost benefit ratio, economic evaluation.
1. Forest Management and Management Systems :
Objective and principles; techniques; stand structure and dynamics, sustained yield relation; rotation, normal forest, growing stock; regulation of yield; management of forest plantations, commercial forests, forest cover monitoring. Approaches viz., (i) site-specific planning, (ii) strategic planning, (iii) Approval, sanction and expenditure, (iv) Monitoring (v) Reporting and governance. Details of steps involved such as formation of Village Forest Committees, Joint Forest Participatory Management.
2. Forest Working Plan :
Forest planning, evaluation and monitoring tools and approaches for integrated planning; multipurpose development of forest resources and forest industries development; working plans and working schemes, their role in nature conservation, bio-diversity and other dimensions; preparation and control. Divisional Working Plans, Annual Plan of Operations.
3. Forest Mensuration and Remote Sensing :
Methods of measuring - diameter, girth, height and volume of trees; form-factor; volume estimation of stand, current anuual increment; mean annual increment. Sampling methods and sample plots. Yield calculation; yield and stand tables, forest cover monitoring through remote sensing; Geographic Information Systems for management and modelling.
4. Surveying and Forest Engineering :
Forest surveying - different methods of surveying, maps and map reading. Basic principles of forest engineering. Building materials and construction. Roads and Bridges; General principles, objects, types, simple design and construction of timber bridges.
1. Forest Ecology and Ethnobotany :
Forest ecology - Biotic and aboitic components, forest eco-systems; forest community concepts; vegetation concepts, ecological succession and climax, primary productivity, nutrient cycling and water relations; physiology in stress environments (drought, water logging salinity and alkalinity). Forest types in India, identification of species, composition and associations; dendrology, taxonomic classification, principles and establishment of herbaria and arboreta. Conservation of forest ecosystems. Clonal parks,
Role of Ethnobotany in Indian Systems of Medicine; Ayurveda and Unani - Introduction, nomenclature, habitat, distribution and botanical features of medicinal and aromatic plants. Factors affecting action and toxicity of drug plants and their chemical constituents.
2. Forest Resources and Utilization :
Environmenatlly sound forest harvesting practices; logging and extraction techniques and principles, transportation system, storage and sale; Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) definition and scope; gums, resins, oleoresins, fibres, oil seeds nuts, rubber, canes, bamboos, medicinal plants, charcoal, lac and shellac, Katha and Bidi leaves, collection; processing and disposal.
Need and importance of wood seasoning and preservation; general principles of seasoning, air and kiln seasoning, solar dehumidification, steam heated and electrical kilns. Composite wood; adhesives-manufacture, properties, uses, plywood manufacture-properties, uses, fibre boards-manufacture properties, uses; particle boards manufacture; properties uses. Present status of composite wood industry in India in future expansion plans. Pulp-paper and rayon; present position of supply of raw material to industry, wood substitution, utilization of plantation wood; problems and possibilities.
Anatomical structure of wood, defects and abnormalities of wood, timber identification - general principles.
3. Forest Protection & Wildlife Biology :
Injuries to forest - abiotic and biotic, destructive agencies, insect-pests and disease, effects of air pollution on forests and forest die back. Susceptibility of forests to damage, nature of damage, cause, prevention, protective measures and benefits due to chemical and biological control. General forest protection against fire, equipment and methods, controlled use of fire, economic and environmental costs; timber salvage operations after natural disasters. Role of afforestation and forest regeneration in absorption of CO2. Rotational and controlled grazing, different methods of control against grazing and browsing animals; effect of wild animals on forest regeneration, human impacts; encroachement, poaching, grazing, live fencing, theft, shifting cultiation and control.
4. Forest Economics and Legislation :
Forest economics–fundamental principles, cost-benefit analyses; estimation of demand and supply; analysis of trends in the national and international market and changes in production and consumption patterns; assessment and projection of market structures; role of private sector and co-operatives; role of corporate financing. Socio-economic analyses of forest productivity and attitudes; valuation of forest goods and service.
Legislation–History of forest development; Indian Forest Policy of 1894, 1952 and 1990. National Forest Policy, 1988 of People’s involvement, Joint Forest Management, Involvement of women; Forestry Policies and issues related to land use, timber and non-timber products, sustainable forest management; industrialisation policies; institutional and structural changes. Decentralization and Forestry Public Administration. Forest laws, necessity; general principles, Indian Forest Act 1927; Forest Conservation Act, 1980; Wildlife Protection Act 1972 and their amendments; Application of Indian Penal Code to Forestry. Scope and objectives of Forest Inventory.
(i) General Geology
The Solar System, meteorities, origin and interior of the earth. Radioactivity and age of earth; Volcanoes- causes and products, volcanic belts. Earthquakes-causes, effects, earthquake belts, seismicity of India, intensity and magnitude, seismongraphs. Island arcs, deep sea trenches and mid-ocean ridges. Continental drift-evidences and mechanics; seafloor spreading, plate tectonics. Isostasy, orogeny and epeirogeny. Continents and oceans.
(ii) Geomorphology and Remote Sensing
Basic concepts of geomorphology. Weathering and mass wasting. Landforms, slopes and drainage. Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation. Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology. Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering,. hydrology and environmental studies. Geomorphology of Indian subcontinent.
Aerial photographs and their interpretation-mertis and limitations. The Electronmagnetic Spectrum. Orbiting satellites and sensor systems. Indian Remote Sensing Sataellites. Satellites data products. Applications of remote sensing in geology. The Geographic Information System and its applications. Global Positioning System.
(iii) Structural geology
Priniples of geologic mapping and map reading, projection diagrams, stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials. Strain markers in deformed rocks. Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions. Folds and faults classification and mechanics. Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities. Superposed deformation. Time-relationship between crystallization and deformation. Introduction to petrofabrics.
Species- definition and nomenclature. Megafossils and Microfossils. Modes of preservation of fossils. Different kinds of microfossils. Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies. Morphology, geological history and evolutionary trend in Cephalopoda, Trilobita, Brachiopoda, Echinoidea and Anthozoa. Stratigraphic utility of Ammonoidea, Trilobita and Graptoloidea. Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidae. Siwalik fauna. Gondwana flora and its importance.
(v) Stratigraphy and Geology of India
Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chro-nostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships. Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks of India. Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance. Major boundary problems- Cambrian/Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/Pleistocene. Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian subcontinent in the geological past. Tectonic framework of India. Evolution of the Himalayas.
(vi) Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology : Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water. Movement of subsruface water. Springs. Porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of aquifers. Water-bearing characteristics of rocks. Groundwater chemistry. Salt water intrusion. Types of wells. Drainage basin morphometry. Exploration for groundwater. Groundwater recharge. Problems and management of groundwater. Rainwater harvesting. Engineering properties of rocks. Geological investigations for dams, tunnels and bridges. Rock as construction material. Alkali-aggregate reaction. Landslides-causes, prevention and rehabilitation. Earthquake-resistant structures.
Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry. International system of crystallographic notation. Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry. Crystal defects. Elements of X-ray crystallography.
Petrological microscope and accessories. Optical properties of common rock forming minerals. Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals.
Physical and chemical characters of rock forming slilicate mineral groups. Structural classification of silicates. Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups.
(ii) Igneous ad Metamorphic Petrology
Generation and crystallisation of magma. Crystallisation of albite-anorthite, diopside-anorthite and diopside-wollastonite-silica systems. Reaction principle., Magmatic differentation and assimilation. Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structrues of igneous rocks. Petrography and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks. Carbonatites. Deccan volcanic province.
Types and agents of metamporphism. Metamporphic grdes and zones. Phase rule. Facies of regional and contact metamorphism. ACF and AKF diagrams. Textures and structures of metamporphic rocks. Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks. Minerals assemblages Retrograde metamorphism. Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatites, Granulite terrains of India.
Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation. diagenesis and lithification. Properties of sediments. Clastic and non-clastic rocks-their classification, petrography and depositional environment. Sedimentary facies and provenance. Sedimentary structures and their significance. Heavy minerals and their significance. Sedminetary basins of India.
(iv) Economic Geology
Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of ore, classification of ore deposits. Process of formation of minerals deposits. Controls of ore localisation. Ore textures and structures. Metallogenic epochs and provinces. Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals. Deposits of coal and petroleum in India. National Mineral Policy. Conservation and utilization of mineral resources. Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.
(v) Mining Geology
Methods of prospecting-geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical. Techniques of sampling. Estimation of reserves or ore. Mehtods of exploration and mining metallic ores, industrial minerals and marine mineral resources. Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.
(vi) Geochemistry and Environmental Geology
Cosmic abundance of elements. Composition of the planets and meteorites. Structure and compostion of earth and distribution of elements. Trace elements. Elements of crystal chemistry-types of chemical bonds, coordination number. Isolmorphism and polymorphism. Elementary thermodynamics.
Natural hazards-floods, landslides, coastal erosion, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation. Environmental impact of urbanization, open cast mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly-ash. Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution Environment protection-legislative measures in India.
Vector, space, linear dependance and independance, subspaces, bases, dimensions. Finite dimensional vector spaces.
Matrices, Cayley-Hamiliton theorem, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, matrix of linear transformation, row and column reduction, Echelon form, eqivalence, congruences and similarity, reduction to cannonical form, rank, orthogonal, symmetrical, skew symmetrical, unitary, hermitian, skew-hermitian forms–their eigenvalues. Orthogonal and unitary reduction of quadratic and hermitian forms, positive definite quardratic forms.
Real numbers, limits, continuity, differerentiability, mean-value theorems, Taylor's theorem with remainders, indeterminate forms, maximas and minima, asyptotes. Functions of several variables: continuity, differentiability, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, Lagrange's method of multipliers, Jacobian. Riemann's definition of definite integrals, indefinite integrals, infinite and improper intergrals, beta and gamma functions. Double and triple integrals (evaluation techniques only). Areas, surface and volumes, centre of gravity.
Analytic Geometry :
Cartesian and polar coordinates in two and three dimesnions, second degree equations in two and three dimensions, reduction to cannonical forms, straight lines, shortest distance between two skew lines, plane, sphere, cone, cylinder., paraboloid, ellipsoid, hyperboloid of one and two sheets and their properties.
Ordinary Differential Equations :
Formulation of differential equations, order and degree, equations of first order and first degree, integrating factor, equations of first order but not of first degree, Clariaut's equation, singular solution.
Higher order linear equations, with constant coefficients, complementary function and particular integral, general solution, Euler-Cauchy equation.
Second order linear equations with variable coefficients, determination of complete solution when one solution is known, method of variation of parameters.
Dynamics, Statics and Hydrostatics :
Degree of freedom and constraints, rectilinerar motion, simple harmonic motion, motion in a plane, projectiles, constrained motion, work and energy, conservation of energy, motion under impulsive forces, Kepler's laws, orbits under central forces, motion of varying mass, motion under resistance.
Equilibrium of a system of particles, work and potential energy, friction, common catenary, principle of virtual work, stability of equilibrium, equilibrium of forces in three dimensions.
Pressure of heavy fluids, equilibrium of fluids under given system of forces Bernoulli's equation, centre of pressure, thrust on curved surfaces, equilibrium of floating bodies, stability of equilibrium, metacentre, pressure of gases.
Vector Analysis :
Scalar and vector fields, triple, products, differentiation of vector function of a scalar variable, Gradient, divergence and curl in cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates and their physical interpretations. Higher order derivatives, vector identities and vector quations.
Application to Geometry: Curves in space, curvature and torision. Serret-Frenet's formulae, Gauss and Stokes' theorems, Green's identities.
Groups, subgroups, normal subgroups, homomorphism of groups quotient groups basic isomorophism theorems, Sylow's group, permutation groups, Cayley theorem. Rings and ideals, principal ideal domains, unique factorization domains and Euclidean domains. Field extensions, finite fields.
Real Analysis :
Real number system, ordered sets, bounds, ordered field, real number system as an ordered field with least upper bound property, cauchy sequence, completeness, Continuity and uniform continuity of functions, properties of continuous functions on compact sets. Riemann integral, improper integrals, absolute and conditional convergence of series of real and complex terms, rearrangement of series. Uniform convergence, continuity, differentiability and integrability for sequences and series of functions. Differentiation of fuctions of several variables, change in the order of partial derivatives, implict function theorem, maxima and minima. Multiple integrals.
Complex Analysis : Analytic function, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Cauchy's theorem, Cauchy's integral formula, power series, Taylor's series, Laurent's Series, Singularities, Cauchy's residue theorem, contour integration. Conformal mapping, bilinear transformations.
Linear Programming :
Linear programming problems, basic solution, basic feasible solution and optimal solution, graphical method and Simplex method of solutions. Duality.
Transportation and assignment problems. Travelling salesman problmes.
Partial differential equations:
Curves and surfaces in three dimesnions, formulation of partial differential equations, solutions of equations of type dx/p=dy/q=dz/r; orthogonal trajectories, pfaffian differential equations; partial differential equations of the first order, solution by Cauchy's method of characteristics; Charpit's method of solutions, linear partial differential equations of the second order with constant coefficients, equations of vibrating string, heat equation, laplace equation.
Numerical Analysis and Computer programming:
Numerical methods: Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations of one variable by bisection, Regula-Falsi and Newton-Raphson methods, solution of system of linear equations by Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordan (direct) methods, Gauss-Seidel(iterative) method. Newton's (Forward and backward) and Lagrange's method of interpolation.
Numerical integration: Simpson's one-third rule, tranpezodial rule, Gaussian quardrature formula.
Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations: Euler and Runge Kutta-methods.
Computer Programming: Storage of numbers in Computers, bits, bytes and words, binary system. arithmetic and logical operations on numbers. Bitwise operations. AND, OR , XOR, NOT, and shift/rotate operators. Octal and Hexadecimal Systems. Conversion to and form decimal Systems.
Representation of unsigned integers, signed integers and reals, double precision reals and long integrers.
Algorithms and flow charts for solving numerical analysis problems.
Developing simple programs in Basic for problems involving techniques covered in the numerical analysis.
Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics :
Generalised coordinates, constraints, holonomic and non-holonomic , systems. D' Alembert's principle and Lagrange' equations, Hamilton equations, moment of intertia, motion of rigid bodies in two dimensions.
Equation of continuity, Euler's equation of motion for inviscid flow, stream-lines, path of a particle, potential flow, two-dimensional and axisymetric motion, sources and sinks, vortex motion, flow past a cylinder and a sphere, method of images. Navier-Stokes equation for a viscous fluid.