|Indian Forest Service Exam (IFS) : |
- Chemical Engineering
- Civil Engineering
1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology: Viruses, bacteria, and plasmids-structure and reproduction. General account of infection, Phytoimmunology. Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and pollution control in air, soil and water.
Important plant diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes. Mode of infection and dissemination. Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence. Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins.
2. Cryptogams: Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes-structure and reproduction from evolutonary viewpoint. Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their economic potential.
3. Phanerogams: Gymnosperms: Concept of Progymonosperms. Classification and distribution of Gymnosperms. Salient features of Cycadales, Coniferrals and Gnetales, their structures and reproduction. General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordaitales.
Angiosperms: Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogeny.
Comparative account of various systems of Angiosperm Classiification. Study of angiospermic families–Magnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae (Cruci-ferae), Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceaie, Dipterocar-paceae, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solana-ceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae (Composite), Poaceae (Gramineae), Arecaceae (Palmae), Liliaceae, Musaceae, Orchidaceae.
Stomata and their types. Anomalous secondary growth, Anatomy of C 3 and C 4 plants.
Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization. Endosperm–its development and function. Patterns of embryo development. Polyembryony, apoxmix, Applications of palynology.
4. Plant Utility and Exploitation:
Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov's centres of origin. Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibres, spices, beverages, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes.
Latex, cellulose Starch and their products. Perfumery. Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context. Energy plantation. Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.
5. Morphogenesis: Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation. Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture. Somatic hybrids and Cybrids.
1. Cell Biology: Techniques of Cell Biology. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells -structural and ultrastructural details. Structure and function of extracellular matrix or ECM (cell wall) and membranes-cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport. Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, ribosomes, endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes, hydrogenosome). Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex. Chromatin and nucleosome. Cell signalling and cell receptors. Signal transduction (G-1 proteins, etc.). Mitosis and meisdosis; molecular basis of cell cycle. Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance. Study of polytene, lampbrush and B-chromosomes–structure, behaviour and significance.
2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution: Development of genetics, and gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles). Quantitative genetics and multiple factors. Linkage and crossing over–methods of gene mapping including molecular maps (idea of mapping function). Sex chromosomes and sexlinked inheritance, sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation. Mutation (biochemical and molecular basis). Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility). Prions and prion hypothesis.
Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and protines. Genetic code and regulation of gene expression. Multigene families.
Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and evolution.
3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics: Methods of plant breeding -- introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk method). Male sterility and heterosis breeding. Use of apomixis in plant breeding. Micropropagation and genetic engineering–methods of transfer of genes and transgenic crops; development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding.
Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV). Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and chi-square tests). Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson distributions). Correlation and regression.
4. Physiology and Biochemistry: Water relations, Mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies. Photosynthesis–photochemical reactions, photophosphorylation and carbon pathways including C pathway (photorespiration), C, C and CAM pathways. Respiraion (anaerobic and aerobic, including fermentation-electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes, coenzymes, energy transfer and energy conservation. Importance of secondary metabolites. Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome). Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization, senescence. Growth substances-their chemical nature, role and applications in agri-horticulture, growth indices, growth movements. Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal). Fruit and seed physiology. Dormancy, storage and germination of seed. Fruit ripening -- its molecular basis and manipulation.
5. Ecology and Plant Geography: Ecological factors. Concepts and dynamics of community. Plant succession. Concepts of biosphere. Ecosystems and their conservation. Pollution and its control (including phytoremediation).
Forest types of India -- afforestation, deforestation and social forestry. Endangered plants, endemism and Red Data Books. Biodiversity. Convention of Biological Diversity, Sovereign Rights and Intellectual Property Rights. Biogeochemical cyeles. Global warming.
1. Atomic structure
Quantum theory, Heisenberg's uncertainity principle, Schrodinger wave equation (time independent). Interpretation of wave function, particle in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions. Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.
2. Chemical bonding
Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, factors affecting stability of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle; covalent bond and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments. Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy. Molecular orbital theory (LCAO method); bonding in homonuclear molecules: H+2, H2 to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, CN, CN-, BeH2 and CO2. Comparision of valence bond and molecular oribtal theories, bond order, bond strength and bond length.
3. Solid State
Forms of solids, law of constancy of interfacial angles, crystal systems and crystal classes (crystallographic groups). Designation of crystal faces, lattice structures and unit cell. Laws of rational indices. Bragg's law. X-ray diffraction by crystals. Close packing, radious ratio rules, calculation of some limiting radius ratio values. Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCl, CaF2, CdI2 and rutile. Imperfections in crystals, stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects, impurity defects, semi-conductors. Elementary study of liquid crystals.
4. The gaseous state
Equation of state for real gases, intermolecular interactions, liquifictaion of gases and critical phenomena, Maxwell's distribution of speeds, intermolecular collisions, collisions on the wall and effusion.
5. Thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics
Thermodynamic systems, states and processes, work, heat and internal energy; first law of thermodynamics, work done on the systems and heat absorbed in different types of processes; calorimetry, energy and enthalpy changes in various processes and their temperature dependence.
Second law of thermodynamics; entropy as a state function, entropy changes in various process, entropy–reversibility and irreversibility, Free energy functions; criteria for equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities; Nernst heat theorem and third law of thermodynamics.
Micro and macro states; canonical ensemble and canonical partition function; electronic, rotational and vibrational partition functions and thermodynamic quantities; chemical equilibrium in ideal gas reactions.
6. Phase equilibria and solutions
Phase equilibria in pure substances; Clausius-Clapeyron equation; phase diagram for a pure substance; phase equilibria in binary systems, partially miscible liquids–upper and lower critical solution temperatures; partial molar quantities, their significance and determination; excess thermodynamic functions and their determination.
Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolytes and Debye-Huckel limiting Law for various equilibrium and transport properties.
Galvanic cells, concentration cells; electrochemical series, measurement of e.m.f. of cells and its applications fuel cells and batteries.
Processes at electrodes; double layer at the interface; rate of charge transfer, current density; overpotential; electroanalytical techniques–voltametry, polarography, amperometry, cyclic-voltametry, ion selective electrodes and their use.
8. Chemical kinetics
Concentration dependence of rate of reaction; defferential and integral rate equations for zeroth, first, second and fractional order reactions. Rate equations involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and chain reactions; effect of temperature and pressure on rate constant. Study of fast reactions by stop-flow and relaxation methods. Collisions and transition state theories.
Absorption of light; decay of excited state by different routes; photochemical reactions between hydrogen and halogens and their quantum yields.
10. Surface phenomena and catalysis
Adsorption from gages and solutions on solid adsorbents, adsorption isotherms–Langmuir and B.E.T. isotherms; determination of surface area, characteristics and mechanism of reaction on heterogeneous catalysts.
11. Bio-inorganic chemistry
Metal ions in biological systems and their role in ion-transport across the membranes (molecular mechanism), ionophores, photosynthesis–PSI, PSII; nitrogen fixation, oxygen-uptake proteins, cytochromes and ferredoxins.
12. Coordination chemistry
(a) Electronic configurations; introduction to theories of bonding in transition metal complexes. Valence bond theory, crystal field theory and its modifications; applications of theories in the explanation of magnetism and electronic spactra of metal complexes.
(b) Isomerism in coordination compounds. IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds; stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers; chelate effect and polynuclear complexes; trans effect and its theories; kinetics of substitution reactions in square-planer complexes; thermodynamic and kinetic stability of complexes.
(c) Synthesis and structures of metal carbonyls; carboxylate anions, carbonyl hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds.
(d) Complexes with aromatic systems, synthesis, structure and bonding in metal olefin complexes, alkyne complexes and cyclopentadienyl complexes; coordinative unsaturation, oxidative addition reactions, insertion reactions, fluxional molecules and their characterization. Compounds with metal-metal bonds and metal atom clusters.
13. General chemistry of ‘f’ block elements
Lanthanides and actinides; separation, oxidation states, magnetic and spectral properties; lanthanide contraction.
14. Non-Aqueous Solvents
Reactions in liquid NH3, HF, SO2 and H2 SO4. Failure of solvent system concept, coordination model of non-aqueous solvents. Some highly acidic media, fluorosulphuric acid and super acids.
1. Delocalised covalent bonding : Aromaticity, anti-aromaticity; annulenes, azulenes, tropolones, kekulene, fulvenes, sydnones.
2(a) Reaction mechanisms : General methods (both kinetic and non-kinetic) of study of mechanism or organic reactions illustrated by examples–use of isotopes, cross-over experiment, intermediate trapping, stereochemistry; energy diagrams of simple organic reactions–transition states and intermediates; energy of activation; thermodynamic control and kinetic control of reactions.
(b) Reactive intermediates : Generation, geometry, stability and reactions of carbonium and carbanium ions, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and niternes.
(c) Substitution reactions : SN1, SN2, SNi, SN1’, SN2’, SNi’ and SRN1 mechanisms; neighbouring group participation; electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions of aromatic compound including simple heterocyclic compounds–pyrrole, thiophene, indole.
(d) Elimination reactions : E1, E2 and E1cb mechanisms; orientation in E2 reactions–Saytzeff and Hoffmann; pyrolytic syn elimination–acetate pyrolysis, Chugaev and Cope eliminations.
(e) Addition reactions : Electrophilic addition to C=C and C=C; nucleophilic addition to C=O, C=N, conjugated olefins and carbonyls.
(f) Rearrangements : Pinacol-pinacolune, Hoffmann, Beckmann, Baeyer–Villiger, Favorskii, Fries, Claisen, Cope, Stevens and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements.
3. Pericyclic reactions : Classification and examples; Woodward-Hoffmann rules—clectrocyclic reactions, cycloaddition reactions [2+2 and 4+2] and sigmatropic shifts [1, 3; 3, 3 and 1, 5] FMO approach.
4. Chemistry and mechanism of reactions : Aldol condensation (including directed aldol condensation), Claisen condensation, Dieckmann, Perkin, Knoevenagel, Witting, Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, Cannizzaro and von Richter reactions; Stobbe, benzoin and acyloin condensations; Fischer indole synthesis, Skraup synthesis, Bischler-Napieralski, Sandmeyer, Reimer-Tiemann and Reformatsky reactions.
5. Polymeric Systems
(a) Physical chemistry of polymers : Polymer solutions and their thermodynamic properties; number and weight average molecular weights of polymers. Determination of molecular weights by sedimentation, light scattering, osmotic pressure, viscosity, end group analysis methods.
(b) Preparation and properties of polymers : Organic polymers–polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, Teflon, nylon, terylene, synthetic and natural rubber. Inorganic polymers–phosphonitrilic halides, borazines, silicones and silicates.
(c) Biopolymers : Basic bonding in proteins, DNA and RNA.
6. Synthetic uses of reagents : OsO4, HIO4, CrO3, Pb(OAc)4, SeO2, NBS, B2H6, Na-Liquid NH3, LiAlH4, NaBH4 n-BuLi, MCPBA.
7. Photochemistry : Photochemical reactions of simple organic compounds, excited and ground states, singlet and triplet states, Norrish-Type I and Type II reactions.
8. Principles of spectroscopy and applications in structure elucidation
(a) Rotational spectra–diatomic molecules; isotopic substitution and rotational constants.
(b) Vibrational spectra–diatomic molecules, linear triatomic molecules, specific frequencies of functional groups in polyatomic molecules.
(c) Electronic spectra : Singlet and triplet states. N–>* and –>* transitions; application to conjugated double bonds and conjugated carbonyls–Woodward-Fieser rules.
(d) Nuclear magnetic resonance : Isochronous and anisochronous protons; chemical shift and coupling constants; Application of 1H NMR to simple organic molecules.
(e) Mass spectra : Parent peak, base peak, daugther peak, metastable peak, fragmentation of simple organic molecules;– cleavage, McLafferty rearrangement.
(f) Electron spin resonance : Inorganic complexes and free radicals.
(a) Fluid and Particle Dynamics
Viscosity of fluids. Laminar and turbulent flows. Equation of continuity and Navier-Stokes equition-Bernoulli’s theorem. Flow meters. Fluid drag and pressure drop due to friction, Reynold’s Number and friction factor - effect of pipe roughness. Economic pipe diameter. Pumps, water, air/steam jet ejectors, compressors, blowers and fans. Agitation and mixing of liquids. Mixing of solids and pastes. Crushing and Grinding - principles and equipment. Rittinger’s and Bond’s laws. Filtration and filtration equipment. Fluid-particle mechanics - free and hindered settling. Fluidisation and minimum fluidization velocity, concepts of compressible and incompressible flow. Transport of Solids.
(b) Mass Transfer
Molecular diffusion coefficients, First and second law and diffusion, mass transfer coefficients, film and penetration theories of mass transfer. Distillation, simple distillation, relative volatility, fractional distillation, plate and packed columns for distillation. Calculation of theoretical number of plates. Liquid-liquid equilibria. Extraction - theory and practice; Design of gas-absorption columns. Drying. Humidification, dehumidification. Crystallisation. Design of equipment.
(c) Heat Taransfer
Conduction, thermal conductivity, extended surface heat transfer.
Convection - free and forced. Heat transfer coefficients - Nusselt Number. LMTD and effectiveness. NTU methods for the design of Double Pipe and Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers. Analogy between heat and momentum transfer. Boiling and condensation heat transfer. Single and multiple-effect evaporators. Rediation - Stefan-Boltzman Law, emissivity and absorptivity. Calculation of heat load of a furnace. Solar heaters.
(d) Noval Separation Processes
Equilibrium separation processes - ion-exchange, osmosis, electro-dialysis, reverse osmosis, ultra-filtration and other membrane processes. Molecular distillation. super critical fluid extraction.
(e) Process Equipment Design
Fractors affecting vessel design criteria - Cost considerations. Design of storage vessels-vertical, horizontal spherical, underground tanks for atmospheric and higher pressure. Design of closures flat and eliptical head. Design of supports. Materials of construction-characteristics and selection.
(f) Process Dynamics and Control
Measuring instruments for process variables like level, pressure, flow, temperature pH and concentration with indication in visual/pneumatic/analog/digital signal forms. Control variable, manipulative variable and load variables. Linear control theory-Laplace, transforms. PID controllers. Block diagram represenation transient and frequency response, stability of closed loop system. Advanced control strategies. Computer based process control.
(a) Material and Energy Balances
Material and energy balance calculations in processes with recycle/bypass/purge. Combustion of solid/liquid/gaseous fuels, stoichiometric relationships and excess air requirements. Adiabatic flame temperature.
(b) Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
Laws of thermodynamics. PVT relationships for pure components and mixtures. Energy functions and inter-relationships - Maxwell’s relations. Fugacity, activity and chemical potential. Vapour-liquid equilibria, for ideal/non-ideal, single and multi component systems. eriteria for chemical reaction equilibrium, equilibrium constant and equillibrium conversions. Thermodynamic cycles - refrigeration and power.
(c) Chemical Reaction Engineering :
Batch reactors - kinetics of homogeneous reactions and interpretation of kinetic data. Ideal flow reactors - CSTR, plug flow reactors and their perofrmance equations. Temperature effects and run-away reactions. Heterogeneous reactions - catalytic and non-catalytic and gas-solid and gas-liquid reactions. Intrinsic kinetics and global rate concept. Importance of interphase and intraparticle mass transfer on performance. Effectiveness factor. Isothermal and non-isothermal reactors and reactor stability.
(d) Chemical Technology
Natural organic products - Wood and wood-based chemicals, pulp and paper, Agro industries - sugar, Edible oils extraction (including tree based seeds), Soaps and detergents. Essential oils - Biomass gasification (including biogas). Coal and coal chemical. Petroleium and Natural gas-Petroleum refining (Atomospheric distillation/cracking/reforming) - Petrochemical industries - Polyethylenes (LDPE/HDPE/LLDPE), Polyvinyl Chloride, Polystyrene. Ammonia manufacture. Cement and lime industries. Paints and varnishes. Glass and ceremics. Fermentation - alcohol and antibiotics.
(e) Environmental Engineering and Safety
Ecology and Environment. Sources of pollutants in air and water. Green house effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rain. Micrometeorology and dispersion of pollutants in environment. Measurement techniques of pollutant levels and their control strategies. Solid wastes, their hazards and their disposal techniques. Design and performance analysis of pollution control equipment. Fire and explosion hazards rating - HAZOP and HAZAN. Emergency planning, disaster management. Environmental legislations - water, air environment protection Acts. Forest (Conservation) Act.
(f) Process Engineering Economics :
Fixed and working capital requirement for a process industry and estimation methods. Cost estimation and comparison of alternatives. Net present value by discounted cash flow. Pay back analysis. IRR, Depreciation, taxes and insurance. Break-even point analysis. Project scheduling - PERT and CPM. Profit and loss account, balance sheet and financial statement. Plant location and plant layout including piping.
Part-A : Engineering Mechanics, Strength of Materials and Structural Analysis.
Engineering Mechanics :
Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent, Non Concurrent and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force and Varignon’s theorem, free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, Principle of virtual work, equivalent force system.
First and Second Moment of area, Mass moment of Inertia.
Static Friction, Inclined Plane and bearings.
Kinematics and Kinetics :
Kinematics in Cartesian and Polar Co-ordinates, motion under uniform and nonuniform acceleration, motion under gravity. Kinetics of particle : Momentum and Energy principles, D’ Alembert’s Principle, Collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies, simple harmonic motion, Flywheel.
Strength of Materials :
Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded compression members, Shear force and bending moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength, Leaf spring. Strain Energy in direct stress, bending & shear.
Deflection of beams : Mecaulay’s method, Mohr’s Moment area method, Conjugate beam method, unit load method. Torsion of Shafts, Transmission of power, close coiled helical springs, Elastic stability of columns, Euler’s Rankine’s and Secant formulae. Principal Stresses and Strains in two dimensions, Mohr’s Circle, Theories of Elastic Failure, Thin and Thick cylinder : Stresses due to internal and external pressure–Lame’s equations.
Structural Analysis :
Castiglianio’s theorems I and II, unit load method, method of consistent deformation applied to beams and pin jointed trusses. Slope-deflection, moment distribution, Kani’s method of analysis and column Analogy method applied to indeterminate beams and rigid frames.
Rolling loads and Influences lines : Influences lines for Shear Force and Bending moment at a section of a beam. Criteria for maximum shear force and bending Moment in beams traversed by a system of moving loads. Influences lines for simply supported plane pin jointed trusses.
Arches : Three hinged, two hinged and fixed arches, rib shortening and temperature effects, influence lines in arches.
Matrix methods of analysis : Force method and displacement method of analysis of indeterminate beams and rigid frames.
Plastic Analysis of beams and frames : Theory of plastic bending, plastic analysis, statical method, Mechanism method.
Unsymmetrical bending : Moment of inertia, product of inertia, position of Neutral Axis and Principle axes, calculation of bending stresses.
Part–B : Design of Structures : Steel, Concrete and Masonry Structures.
Structural Steel Design :
Structural Steel : Factors of safety and load factors. Rivetted, bolted and welded joints and connections. Design of tension and compression members, beams of built up section, rivetted and welded plate girders, gantry girders, stancheons with battens and lacings, slab and gussetted column bases.
Design of highway and railway bridges : Through and deck type plate girder, Warren girder, Pratt truss.
Design of Concrete and Masonry Structures :
Concept of mix design. Reinforced Concrete : Working Stress and Limit State method of design–Recommendations of I.S. codes design of one way and two way slabs, stair-case slabs, simple and continuous beams of rectangular, T and L sections. Compression members under direct load with or without eccentricity, Isolated and combined footings.
Cantilever and Counterfort type retaining walls.
Water tanks : Design requirements for Rectangular and circular tanks resting on ground.
Prestressed concrete : Methods and systems of prestressing, anchorages, Analysis and design of sections for flexure based on working stress, loss of prestress.
Design of brick masonry as per I.S. Codes
Design of masonry retaining walls.
Part-C : Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow and Hydraulic Machines
Fluid Mechanics : Fluid properties and their role in fluid motion, fluid statics including forces acting on plane and curve surfaces.
Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid flow : Velocity and accelerations, stream lines, equation of continuity, irrotational and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream functions, flownet, methods of drawing flownet, sources and sinks, flow separation, free and forced vortices.
Control volume equation, continuity, momentum, energy and moment of momentum equations from control volume equation, Navier-Stokes equation, Euler’s equation of motion, application to fluid flow problems, pipe flow, plane, curved, stationary and moving vanes, sluice gates, weirs, orifice meters and Venturi meters.
Dimensional Analysis and Similitude : Buckingham’s Pi-theorem, dimensionless parameters, similitude theory, model laws, undistorted and distorted models.
Laminar Flow : Laminar flow between parallel, stationary and moving plates, flow through tube.
Boundary layer : Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sublayer, smooth and rough boundaries, drag and lift.
Turbulent flow through pipes : Characteristics of turbulent flow, velocity distribution and variation of pipe friction factor, hydraulic grade line and total energy line, siphons, expansion and contractions in pipes, pipe networks, water hammer in pipes and surge tanks.
Open channel flow : Uniform and non-uniform flows, momentum and energy correction factors, specific energy and specific force, critical depth, resistance equations and variation of roughness coefficient, rapidly varied flow, flow in contractions, flow at sudden drop, hydraulic jump and its applications surges and waves, gradually varied flow, classification of surface profiles, control section, step method of integration of varied flow equation, moving surges and hydraulic bore.
Hydraulic Machines and Hydropower :
Centrifugal pumps–Types, characteristics, Net Positive Suction Height (NPSH), specific speed. Pumps in parallel.
Reciprocating pumps, Airvessels, Hydraulic ram, efficiency parameters, Rotary and positive displacement pumps, diaphragm and jet pumps.
Hydraulic turbines, types classification, Choice of turbines, performance parameters, controls, characteristics, specific speed.
Principles of hydropower development. Type, layouts and Component works. Surge tanks, types and choice. Flow duration curves and dependable flow. Storage an pondage. Pumped storage plants. Special features of mini, micro-hydel plants.
Part-D : Geo Technical Engineering
Types of soil, phase relationships, consistency limits particles size distribution, classifications of soil, structure and clay mineralogy.
Capillary water and structural water, effective stress and pore water pressure, Darcy’s Law, factors affecting permeability, determination of permeability, permeability of stratified soil deposits.
Seepage pressure, quick sand condition, compressibility and consolidation, Terzaghi’s theory of one dimensional consolidation, consolidation test.
Compaction of soil, field control of compaction. Total stress and effective stress parameters, pore pressure coefficients.
Shear strength of soils, Mohr Coulomb failure theory, Shear tests.
Earth pressure at rest, acive and passive pressures, Rankine’s theory, Coulomb’s wedge theory, earth pressure on retaining wall, sheetpile walls, Braced excavation.
Bearing capacity, Terzaghi and other important theories, net and gross bearing pressure.
Immediate and consolidation settlement.
Stability of slope, Total Stress and Effective Stress methods, Conventional methods of slices, stability number.
Subsurface exploration, methods of boring, sampling, penetration tests, pressure meter tests.
Essential features of foundation, types of foundation, design criteria, choice of type of foundation, stress distribution in soils, Boussinessq’s theory, Newmarks’s chart, pressure bulb, contact pressure, applicability of different bearing capacity theories, evaluation of bearing capacity from field tests, allowable bearing capacity, Settlement analysis, allowable settlement.
Proportioning of footing, isolated and combined footings, rafts, buoyancy rafts, Pile foundation, types of piles, pile capacity, static and dynamic analysis, design of pile groups, pile load test, settlement of piles, lateral capacity. Foundation for Bridges. Ground improvement techniques–preloading, sand drains, stone column, grouting, soil stabilisation.
Part-A : Construction Technology, Equipment, Planning and Management
1. Construction Technology :
Engineering Materiels :
Physical properties of construction materials : Stones, Bricks and Tiles; Lime, Cement and Surkhi Mortars; Lime Concrete and Cement Concrete, Properties of freshly mixed and hardened concrete, Flooring Tiles, use of ferro-cement, fibre-reinforced and polymer concrete, high strength concrete and light weight concrete. Timber : Properties and uses; defects in timber; seasoning and preservation of timber. Plastics, rubber and damp-proofing materials, termite proofing, Materials, for Low cost housing.
Building components and their functions; Brick masonry : Bonds, jointing. Stone masonry. Design of Brick masonry walls as per I.S. codes, factors of safety, serviceability and strength requirements; plastering, pointing. Types of Floors & Roofs. Ventilators, Repairs in buildings.
Functional planning of building : Building orientation, circulation, grouping of areas, privacy concept and design of energy efficient building; provisions of National Building Code.
Building estimates and specifications; Cost of works; valuation.
2. Construction Equipment :
Standard and special types of equipment, Preventive maintenance and repair, factors affecting the selection of equipment, economical life, time and motion study, capital and maintenance cost.
Concreting equipments : Weigh batcher, mixer, vibration, batching plant, Concrete pump.
Earth-work equipment : Power shovel hoe, bulldozer, dumper, trailors, and tractors, rollers, sheep foot roller.
3. Construction Planning and Management : Construction activity, schedules, job layout, bar charts, organization of contracting firms, project control and supervision. Cost reduction measures.
Newwork analysis : CPM and PERT analysis, Float Times, cashing of activities, contraction of network for cost optimization, up dating, Cost analysis and resource allocation.
Elements of Engineering Economics, methods of appraisal, present worth, annual cost, benefit-cost, incremental analysis. Economy of scale and size. Choosing between alternatives including levels of investments. Project profitability.
Part-B : Survey and Transportation Engineering
Survey : Common methods of distance and angle measurements, plane table survey, levelling traverse survey, triangulation survey, corrections, and adjustments, contouring, topographical map. Surveying instruments for above purposes. Tacheometry. Circular and transition curves. Principles of photogrammetry.
Railways : Permanent way, sleepers, rail fastenings, ballast, points and crossings, design of turn outs, stations and yards, turntables, signals, and interlocking, level-crossing. Construction and maintenance of permanent ways : Superelevation, creep of rail, ruling gradient, track resistance, tractive effort, relaying of track.
Highway Engineering : Principles of highway planning, Highway alignments. Geometrical design : Cross section, camber, superelevation, horizontal and vertical curves. Classification of roads : low cost roads, flexible pavements, rigid pavements. Design of pavements and their construction, evaluation of pavement failure and strengthening.
Drainage of roads : Surface and sub-surface drainage.
Traffic Engineering : Forecasting techniques, origin and destination survey, highway capacity. Channelised and unchannelised intersections, rotary design elements, markings, sign, signals, street lighting; Traffic surveys. Principle of highway financing.
Part-c : Hydrology, Water Resources and Engineering :
Hydrology : Hydrological cycle, precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, depression storage, infiltration, overland flow, hydrograph, flood frequency analysis, flood estimation, flood routing through a reservoir, channel flow routing-Muskingam method.
Ground water flow : Specific yield, storage coefficient, coefficient of permeability, confined and unconfined aquifers, aquitards, radial flow into a well under confined and unconfined conditions, tube wells, pumping and recuperation tests, ground water potential.
Water Resources Engineering : Ground and surface water resource, single and multipurpose projects, storage capacity of reservoirs, reservoir losses, reservoir sedimentation, economics of water resources projects.
Irrigation Engineering : Water requirements of crops : consumptive use, quality of water for irrigation, duty and delta, irrigation methods and their efficiencies.
Canals : Distribution systems for canal irrigation, canal capacity, canal losses, alignment of main and distributory canals, most efficient section, lined canals, their design, regime theory, critical shear stress, bed load, local and suspended load transport, cost analysis of lined and unlined canals, drainage behind lining.
Water logging : causes and control, drainage system design, salinity.
Canal structures : Design of cross regulators, head regulators, canal falls, aqueducts, metering flumes and canal outlets.
Diversion head work : Principles and design of weirs of permeable and impermeable foundation, Khosla’s theory, energy dissipation, stilling basin, sediment excluders.
Storage works : Types of dams, design, principles of rigid gravity and earth dams, stability analysis, foundation treatment, joints and galleries, control of seepage.
Spillways : Spillway types, crest gates, energy dissipation.
River training : Objectives of river training, methods of river training.
Part-D : Environmental Engineering
Water Supply : Estimation of surface and subsurface water resources, predicting demand for water, impurities, of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, waterborne diseases, standards for potable water.
Intake of water : pumping and gravity schemes. Water treatment : principles of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation; slow-; rapid-, pressure-, filters; chlorination, softening, removal of taste, odour and salinity.
Water storage and distribution : storage and balancing reservoirs : types, location and capacity. Distribution system : layout, hydraulics of pipe lines, pipe fittings, valves including check and pressure reducing valves, meters, analysis of distribution systems, leak detection, maintenance of distribution systems, pumping stations and their operations.
Sewage systems : Domestic and industrial wastes, storm sewage–separate and combined systems, flow through sewers, design of sewers, sewer appurtenances, manholes, inlets, junctions, siphon. Plumbing in public buildings.
Sewage characterisation : BOD, COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC. Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land.
Sewage treatment : Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation tanks, trickling filters, oxidation ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge, recycling of waste water.
Solid waste : collection and disposal in rural and urban contexts, management of long-term ill-effects.
Environmental pollution : Sustainable development. Radioactive wastes and disposal. Environmental impact assessment for thermal power plants, mines, river valley projects. Air pollution. Pollution control acts.