Support Organizations of Schools in India
The Secondary education is supported by the following Organizations under the administrative control of the Union Department of Education:
- National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)
The NCERT undertakes programmes related to research, development and training extension and dissemination of educational innovations etc., through various constituent Departments at the headquarters in New Delhi and 11 Field Officers all over the country. Publication of school textbooks and other educational material like teachers. guides/manuals etc. are its major functions. The NCERT undertakes time bound projects in Pre-School Education, Education for Girls and Education for SC/STs.
The NCERT has following constituent units in the field :
- RIE at Bhubaneshwar, Ajmer, Mysore, Bhopal
- PSSCIVE, Bhopal. A fifth RIE is proposed at Shillong.
- Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)
The Board is headed by its Chairman, who controls all the functions of the Board and heads all the committees constituted for the purpose. The Board has seven committees, namely, Finance, Curriculum, Examination, Result, Affiliation, Committee for Private Candidates and Committees of Courses. The Chairman is also the Head of the Governing Body who governs and gives advices on different matters of the Boards from time to time. The Education Secretary is the Controlling Authority of the Board.
The Board has six regional offices at Ajmer, Chandigarh, Chennai, Allahabad, Guwahati and Delhi to ensure better communication and services to different agencies and schools affiliated in various parts of the country. The number of schools affiliated to CBSE has gone up phenomenally from 309 in 1962 to more than 6700 in 2003.
- Central Institute of Education Technology (CIET)
CIET also coordinates programme production activities of the six States Institute of Education Technology at Patna, Lucknow, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Pune,and Bhubaneshwar.
CIET is an important unit of NCERT which is engaged in the production of satellite based audio and video programmes for Elementary and Secondary levels which are aired on All India Radio, and Doordarshan.
- National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)
National Institute of Open Schooling (earlier known as National Open School) was established in November 1989 as an autonomous registered society. Since October 1990, through a Resolution NIOS has been vested with authority to examine and certify students registered with it, up to pre-degree courses.
NIOS serves its clients through a network of study centres all over the country. These centres provide individualised support to its learners to facilitate the learning processes. At present there are about 2500 Study Centres catering to about fourteen lakh students all over the country and abroad. These study centres are also known as Accredited Institutions (AIs), Accredited Vocational Institutions (AVIs) and Open Basic Education(OBEs).
Admissions are held thrice a year during May and November (Direct Admission) and in July (through Accredited Institutions). Currently National Institute of Open Schooling has more than 14 Lakh students on its rolls from almost every State and Union Territory of India and abroad. The NIOS provides the following programmes:
- Foundation Course
- Secondary Education Course
- Senior Secondary Education Course
- Vocational Education Programme
- Life Enrichment Programme
- Open Basic Education for Universal Elementary Education (UEE)
- Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS)
Kendriya Vidyalayas are opened in the Civil Sector on the recommendation of various Ministries/Departments of Central Government/State Government or the Central Government Employees Welfare Co-ordination Committee. The number of schools in this sector are more or less frozen with a view not to increase the non-plan expenditure. Some Kendriya Vidyalayas are opened on the recommendations of the Ministry of Defence in the Defence Sector for which the expenditure is met by the Ministry of Defence. Kendriya Vidyalayas are also opened in the Institutes of higher learning and project sectors where the recurring and non-recurring expenditure are fully met by the sponsoring project authorities.
Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is an autonomous organisation established in 1965 with the primary objective of setting up and monitoring Kendriya Vidyalayas. The Kendriya Vidyalayas have a four fold mission, namely:
- To cater to the educational needs of children of transferable Central Government employees including Defence and Para-military personnel by providing a common programme of education.
- To pursue excellence and set the pace in the field of school education.
- To initiate and promote experimentation and innovations in education in collaboration with other bodies like the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) etc.
- To develop the spirit of national integration and create a sense of .Indianness. among children.
- Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS)
Admissions to the JNVs are made through competitive examination conducted by CBSE and children are admitted to Class VI. Education in Navodaya Vidyalayas is free. So far 404 Navodaya Vidyalayas are in operation covering 30 States/UTs in the country except the States of West Bengal & Tamil Nadu. The Scheme envisages establishment of NVs, on an average, one in each district in the country.
This is another autonomous body which was set up to establish and manage fully residential co-educational schools covering class VIth to XIIth known as Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas (JNVs) with the aim of:
- To provide good quality modern education up to Senior Secondary stage to the talented children predominantly from rural areas, without regard to their family.s socio-economic condition.
- To play the trend setter and pace setter role in their area.
- To serve, in each district, as a focal point for improvement in the quality of school education through sharing of experiences and facilities.
- Central Tibetan Schools Administration (CTSA)
The main objectives of the CTSA are to run, manage and assist institutions for the education of children of Tibetan refugees in India.
The Central Tibetan Schools Administration (CTSA) was set up in 1961 as an autonomous organisation by the Government of India.
The Administration runs 79 schools. To keep the Tibetan Community abreast with all aspects of modern education and development while retaining essentials of their traditional system and culture, schools have been opened all over the country, where there is concentration of Tibetans, mostly in hilly areas.
- State Institute of Education Technology ( AP, Bihar, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra, Orissa, UP)
To enable production of suitable programmes for these schools, six autonomous State Institutes of Education Technology, in U.P., Bihar, Orissa, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, have been set up and are funded under the Scheme for the production of school programmes to be broadcast by the Akashvani and telecast by the Doordarshan. A new SIET ahs also been set up in Kerala by the Kerala Govt. and the programme production cost alone is being funded by the Central Govt. for the present.
Up to September 1999, 3,92,463 Radio-cum-Cassette Players and 75,903 Colour Televisions have been sanctioned to the States and UTs, for distribution to Primary and other category of Schools.